The National Environmental Justice Advisory Council (NEJAC) is a federal advisory committee to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This report, therefore, focuses on those environmental justice issues raised by compromised aquatic ecosystems that EPA is empowered to address. That is to say, it examines, in the main, efforts that might be undertaken by EPA, as opposed to other agencies (whether federal, state, or tribal), and it focuses on sources of contamination and depletion within the United States, as opposed to global sources. This focus is not meant to suggest that NEJAC believes that the efforts of these other agencies and the contributions of these other sources are not important aspects of understanding and addressing compromised aquatic ecosystems; rather, it reflects NEJAC's role as a federal advisory committee to EPA. This report also examines the issues assuming a backdrop of the current state of the law. For example, in Chapter two it discusses prevention, reduction, cleanup and restoration in light of existing environmental laws, and in Chapter Four it discusses the particular legal and political status of American Indian tribes and Alaska Native villages, given current interpretations of this status and the current enumeration of federally-recognized tribes. Again, this assumption is not meant to suggest that NEJAC supports in every respect these current enactments or interpretations; rather, it reflects a pragmatic choice, governed in part by considerations of scope. Throughout, this report discusses the impact of contaminated and depleted aquatic ecosystems on communities of color, low-income communities, tribes, and other indigenous peoples; Chapter Four, however, is devoted to those issues raised by the fact of American Indian tribes' and Alaska Native villages' unique status as sovereign governments.