Brownfield sites are everywhere. The legacy of the nation's industrial past is evident in communities all across the country. Often abandoned, typically contaminated manufacturing sites dot the landscape of cities and towns of all size, tucked in odd corners of communities as well as dominating waterfronts and urban centers. And changing economic fortunes also influences the fabric of many communities, symbolized by shuttered commercial facilities, dying malls, and abandoned gas stations. All of these sites pose significant challenges for local officials, economic development agencies, and community residents. Bringing new activity to these 'brownfield' sites can be a costly proposition. What we've seen, after 15 years of experience with brownfields, is that the legal and procedural hurdles of acquiring, cleaning, and reusing these sites can still be expensive in terms of site preparation expenses and fees, and costly in terms of time delays. Site evaluation processes, testing, legal issues to resolve, and other factors can discourage private participation in activities to bring previously used properties back to productive use.