Increasingly, scientific breakthroughs will be powered by advanced computing capabilities that help researchers manipulate and explore massive datasets. The speed at which any given scientific discipline advances will depend on how well its researchers collaborate with one another, and with technologists, in areas of eScience such as databases, workflow management, visualization, and cloud computing technologies. In The fourth paradigm: data-intensive scientific ciscovery, the collection of essays expands on the vision of pioneering computer scientist Jim Gray for a new, fourth paradigm of discovery based on data-intensive science and offers insights into how it can be fully realized. Introductions -- Jim Gray on eScience: a transformed scientific method -- Earth and environment -- Gray's laws: database-centric computing in science -- The emerging science of environmental applications -- Redefining ecological science using data -- 2020 vision for ocean science -- Bringing the night sky closer: discoveries in the data deluge -- Instrumenting the earth: next-generation sensor networks and environmental science -- Health and wellbeing -- The healthcare singularity and the age of semantic medicine -- Healthcare delivery in developing countries: challenges and potential solutions -- Discovering the wiring diagram of the brain -- Toward a computational microscope for neurobiology -- A unified modeling approach to data-intensive healthcare -- Visualization in process algebra models of biological systems -- Scientific infrastructure -- A new path for science? -- Beyond the tsunami: developing the infrastructure to deal with life sciences data -- Multicore computing and scientific discovery -- Parallelism and the cloud -- The impact of workflow tools on data-centric research -- Semantic escience: encoding meaning in next-generation digitally enhanced science -- Visualization for data-intensive science -- A platform for all that we know: creating a knowledge-driven research infrastructure -- Scholarly communication -- Jim Gray's fourth paradigm and the construction of the scientific record -- Text in a data-centric world -- All aboard: toward a machine-friendly scholarly communication system -- The future of data policy -- I have seen the paradigm shift, and it is us -- From web 2.0 to the global database -- -- The way forward -- Conclusions and next steps.