Record Display for the EPA National Library Catalog


OLS Field Name OLS Field Data
Main Title Wastewater irrigation in developing countries : health effects and technical solutions /
Other Authors
Author Title of a Work
Shuval, Hillel I.
Publisher World Bank,
Year Published 1986
Report Number IBRD 142
OCLC Number 13361201
ISBN 0821307630; 9780821307632
Subjects Water reuse--Health aspects--Developing countries. ; Sewage irrigation--Health aspects--Developing countries. ; Water--Purification--Developing countries. ; Sanitary Engineering. ; Abwasser.--(DE-588)4000302-4 ; Bewässerung.--(DE-588)4006306-9 ; Entwicklungslñder.--(DE-588)4014954-7 ; Entwicklungsländer.--(DE-588)4014954-7
Internet Access
Description Access URL
Full text;
Full text
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
EJBM  RA598.5.W37 1986 1986 + summary Headquarters Library/Washington,DC 03/24/1990
Collation xxxi, 324 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (pages 307-324).
Contents Notes
This report summarizes information on practices of wastewater reuse for agriculture in developing and developed countries around the world and reviews the public health and technological aspects of irrigation with wastewater. It evaluates the potential health effects from such reuse and proposes effective and economic methods of control that are particularly suited to developing countries. A theoretical model is developed, based on a review of available credible epidemiological studies and reports, to assist in predicting the degree of risk of disease transmission associated with various wastewater reuse practices. It provides a basis for evaluating control options. Technological and policy options for reducing and controlling any health risks of wastewater reuse in agriculture are evaluated here. In particular, multicell stabilization ponds with 20 days' detention time effectively remove bacterial, viral, and helminth pathogens in a low-cost, robust, easy-to-operate system that is especially suitable for developing countries. Appropriate wastewater treatment in combination with controlled irrigation techniques and restrictive cropping practices represent effective remedial measures.