The report describes a general sampling and analytical strategy, developed for use in the identification of potentially hazardous components in process and waste streams. The strategy includes sampling, separation, and measurement, with options for different stream types. The sampling involves many generally available techniques and equipment. The separation relies on liquid/liquid partitioning and various forms of column chromatography. Measurement primarily involves gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, spark source mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, and ion selective electrodes. The strategy was applied to five petroleum refinery streams: fugitive emissions from atmospheric crude distillation, aqueous condensate from an atmospheric crude still, effluent water from an API separator, tail gas from a sulfur recovery unit, and atmospheric emissions from a fluid catalytic cracking regenerator. Background data required to apply the strategy to these streams was acquired using published information on chemical composition and by application of engineering judgment. Costs were developed for the application of the sampling and analytical strategy using a modular approach. Total costs for the five streams, depending on options selected, ranged between $270,000 and $450,000. Copyright (c) National Technical Information Service 1976.