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Main Title Wastewater demineralization by two-stage fixed-bed ion exchange process /
Author Chen, Ching-lin. ; Miehle., Robert P.
Other Authors
Author Title of a Work
Miele, Robert P.
CORP Author Los Angeles County Sanitation District, Whittier, Calif.;Municipal Environmental Research Lab., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Publisher Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory ; For sale by the National Technical Information Service,
Year Published 1977
Report Number EPA/600/2-77/146; DI-14-12-150
Stock Number PB-272 591
OCLC Number 35264089
Subjects Sewage--Purification--Ion exchange process ; Water--Purification--Ion exchange process ; Water treatment plants--United States ; Saline water conversion--Ion exchange process
Additional Subjects Ion exchange resins ; Sewage treatment ; Demineralizing ; California ; Performance evaluation ; Cost analysis ; Pilot plants ; Regeneration ; Brines ; Water reclamation ; Life(Durability) ; Design criteria ; Efficiency ; Feasibility ; Carbon ; Absorption ; Process charting ; Pomona(California) ; Water reuse
Internet Access
Description Access URL
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
EJBD  EPA 600-2-77-146 c.1 Headquarters Library/Washington,DC 03/17/2014
ELBD ARCHIVE EPA 600-2-77-146 Received from HQ AWBERC Library/Cincinnati,OH 10/04/2023
ELBD RPS EPA 600-2-77-146 repository copy AWBERC Library/Cincinnati,OH 06/12/2018
ESAD  EPA 600-2-77-146 Region 10 Library/Seattle,WA 03/23/2010
NTIS  PB-272 591 Some EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. 07/26/2022
Collation x, 71 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm.
A 9.5 l/min (2.5 gpm) two-stage fixed bed ion exchange process (primary cation - primary anion - secondary cation - secondary anion) was operated on a feed of carbon treated secondary effluent for 48 months at Pomona, California. To achieve high levels of regeneration efficiency regenerant was passed counter current to the feed, and regenerant levels were held to 17.6 g H2SO4 per liter of cation resin (1.1 lb/cu ft) and 9.6 g NH3 per liter of anion resin (0.6 lb/cu ft). At this level regenerant efficiency was 85% for the cation resin and 90% for the anion resin. TDS removal for feed range of 600 mg/l to 1700 mg/l was in excess of 90% despite the low level of regenerant used. A single stage system (primary cation - primary anion) was set us to determine resin lifetime performance. The same feed and regenerant was used as in the two-stage system. During a 32 month period the cation resin was regenerated over 7,000 times and the anion resin was regenerated almost 2,000 times. No evidence of any deterioration was observed. The system consistently achieved 70% TDS removal. Estimates are presented on treatment costs as a function of plant capacity and feed TDS based on the data generated.
Contract no. 14-12-150. "September 1977." Includes bibliographical references (page 71).