Technology transfer is an important activity within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Specific technology transfer programs, such as the activities of the Center for Environmental Research Information, the Innovative and Alternative Technology Program, as well as the Small Community Outreach Program, are used to encourage the utilization of cost-effective municipal pollution control technology. Case studies of three technologies, including a plant operations diagnostic/remediation methodology, alternative sewer technologies and ultraviolet disinfection, are presented. These case studies are presented retrospectively in the context of a generalized concept of how technology flows from science to utilization which was developed in a study by Allen (1977). Additional insights from the study are presented and the information gathering characteristics of engineers and scientists, which may be useful in designing technology transfer programs. The recognition of the need for a technology or a deficiency in current practice are important stimuli other than technology transfer for accelerating the utilization of new technology.