An investigation was carried out of methods and techniques applicable to the detection and monitoring of carbon fibers as they are emitted in processes involving their manufacture or their use. The specific activities of these programs were: (a) to perform a detailed literature search on relevant information about candidate measurement methods, (b) to determine the typical effluent conditions under which carbon fibers are emitted to the atmosphere, (c) to evaluate the various applicable candidate monitoring techniques, (d) to perform a comparison of these methods, and (e) to select a preferred monitoring technique. The following conclusions were reached: (a) routine carbon fiber emissions to the atmosphere are, at present, negligible; (b) no extant instrument is capable of selective detection and measurement of carbon fiber aerosols; and (c) techniques can be developed to provide a practical instrumental solution to carbon fiber monitoring. Among the most promising candidate techniques identified within this investigation is the photothermal detection method. This approach is discussed in detail, and preliminary design criteria for an instrument incorporating this technique have been developed.