The point of view that has been taken in the preparation of the material in this volume is that we wanted to show to what extent the research community has been able to provide necessary tools to environmental managers for use in decision making. After all, in addition to providing a better understanding of the world in which we live, we would like to provide environmental decision-makers with the best scientific information available for use in their deliberations. We must all recognize, however, that decisions are not made solely on the basis of the scientific information presented. Economics, societal values, legislative mandates and regulations, politics, and public perceptions all play a role in the ultimate settlement of environmental issues. But this reality should not deter us from providing sound technical advice. The goal of the work that has been presented in this volume and of research needs that are provided later in this chapter is to provide scientifically credible information to environmental managers. This directed research is multidisciplinary, and requires coordination among many investigators if the end result is to be credible and useful.