Several decades ago it was reported that when adult male rats were exposed to a single injection of 50 mg/kg body weight ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) and mated with untreated females, average litter size was significantly reduced as early as 2 weeks later. Herein, the authors sought to determine whether EDS perturbs the fertilizing ability of cauda epididymal sperm. Four days after exposure to 50 mg/kg EDS, sperm from the proximal cauda epididymidis were inseminated into adult receptive females in utero; on the next day the percentage of ferilized eggs was determined. Exogenous T administration and castraction were used to determine what role, if any, androgen deprivation and the testis had on the fertilizing ability of proximal cauda epididymal sperm. Sperm motion parameters, serum T, T in the caput/corpus epididymidis, and detergent-extracted sperm protein were evaluated and correlated with fertilizing ability. The authors found that both castration and EDS exposure significantly compromised the fertilizing ability of sperm in proximal cauda epididymidis 4 days after exposure. Exogenous T, sufficient to maintain serum T, completely restored the fertilizing ability of sperm following castration, but not after EDS exposure.