The toxicity of 175 sediment samples from Commencement Bay, Washington, was measured by the survival of marine infaunal amphipods (Rhepoxynius abronius) during ten-day exposure to test sediment. Survival was high in sediment from offshore, deeper parts of the Bay, including two designated dredge material disposal sites. Within each of the major industrialized waterways there was a wide range in amphipod survival. Both acutely toxic and relatively nontoxic samples were collected from various areas within the Hylebos, Blair, Sitcum and City Waterways. Habitat differences, sedimentation rates, proximity to contaminant sources and sinks, and disruption of the seabed by prop scour and dredging could contribute to this variation in toxicity.