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Main Title Control Techniques for Lead Air Emissions. Volume II: Chapter 4 - Appendix B.
Author Augenstein, David M. ; Corwin, Tom ; Hearn, Robert ; Katari, Vishnu ; Sperber, James ;
CORP Author PEDCo-Environmental, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.;Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Year Published 1977
Report Number EPA-68-02-1375; EPA-450/2-77-012-B;
Stock Number PB80-197551
Additional Subjects Air pollution control ; Lead(Metal) ; Cost analysis ; Exhaust emissions ; Combustion products ; Cost analysis ; Metal industry ; Manufacturing ; Smelters ; Gasoline ; Electrostatic precipitators ; Air filters ; Capitalized costs ; Sources ; Electric batteries ; Lead oxides ; Pigments ; Pesticides ; Fabric filters ; Fugitive emissions
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
NTIS  PB80-197551 Some EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. 07/26/2022
Collation 370p
This publication describes sources of atmospheric lead (Pb) emissions in the United States and deals with methods of emission control and estimated costs of controls. Lead emissions have been almost ubiquitous in this country and have arisen from automobiles, the metallurgical industry, fuel combustion, and many lead-using manufacturing processes. Gasoline combustion contributed 90.4 percent of the 141.4 Gg (155,900 tons) total lead emissions in 1975. The next largest lead emitters were waste oil disposal, primary copper smelting, and solid waste incineration. Significant sources of fugitive lead emissions are primary nonferrous smelters and secondary lead smelters. Lead emissions from gasoline have consisted mostly of lead oxides; lead alkyl manufacture emits small amounts of those alkyls as vapors. Control of lead emissions from automobiles is being achieved by reduction or elimination of lead in gasoline. Particulate lead emissions from industry are being controlled by electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters, up to efficiencies of about 99.5 and 99.9 percent, respectively. Scrubber efficiencies can reach 99 percent at the expense of high power usage. Cost data on lead emission controls is limited; therefore, for most industrial sources, model plants were described, and equations were derived for capital and annualized costs, based on exhaust flow rate and annual labor hours. Appendix B of the document shows how the equations may be adjusted to apply to either new or retrofit construction.