||Inactivation of Norwalk Virus in Drinking Water By Chlorine.
Keswick, B. H. ;
Satterwhite, T. K. ;
Johnson, P. C. ;
DuPont, H. L. ;
Gary, G. W. ;
||Texas Univ. Medical School at Houston. ;Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA.;Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Water Engineering Research Lab.
Drinking water ;
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Norwalk virus in water was found to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than poliovirus-1 (LSc2Ab), human rotavirus (Wa), simian rotavirus (SA-11) or f2 bacteriophage. A 3.75 mg/l dose of chlorine was found to be effective against other viruses, but failed to inactivate Norwalk virus. The Norwalk virus inoculum remained infectious for 5 of 8 volunteers despite the initial presence of free residual chlorine. Infectivity in volunteers was demonstrated by seroconversion to Norwalk virus. Fourteen of 16 subjects receiving untreated inoculum seroconverted to Norwalk virus. Illness was produced in 4 of the 8 volunteers and in 11 of 16 control subjects.