The Energy Security Act, which establishes the U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SFC), specifies that applicants for SFC financial assistance must develop an acceptable plan for environmental monitoring of the construction and operation of the proposed synthetic fuels facilities, following consultation with EPA and other agencies. This manual is intended as a technical aid to applicants, the SFC, and environmental reviewers in developing and reviewing plans covering source and ambient monitoring around coal-, oil shale-, and tar sand-based synfuels plants, consistent with the Act. This manual does not provide rigorous specifications for an "acceptable" monitoring plan. Rather, it describes approaches to consider and issues to address in developing a monitoring plan (or an outline of a plan). The exact content of the plan or outline for a specific facility would depend upon conditions associated with that plant. This manual addresses approaches for selecting discharge streams and ambient media for monitoring substances/survey procedures to be addressed, monitoring frequencies, and sampling/analysis techniques. A phased monitoring approach is emphasized.