A state-of-the-art review of the characterization of solid wastes and aqueous effluents generated by energy-related processes was conducted. The reliability of these data was evaluated according to preselected criteria or sample source, sampling and analytical methodology, and data source. Data on the following activities were included: coal strip mining, oil refineries, oil shale operations, coal-fired power plants, coal liquefaction processes, coal gasification processes, and geothermal energy production. Using the information collected during this review, areas of inadequate data were identified and sampling sites were selected. Sites were selected to include at least one plant in each of seven energy-related activities. Energy research sites in the Western Energy Resource Development sector were considered as prime sites. Samples were collected from 49 sites. Samples were prepared by using the necessary sample-preparation, clean-up, and preconcentration procedures. Purgeable (volatile) and extractable (semi-volatile) organic components were identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/data system techniques. Samples were analyzed for mercury by using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedures, while approximately 70 other elements were determined by spark source mass spectrometry.