||Estimability and Estimation of Excess and Etiologic Fractions.
Robins, J. ;
Greenland., S. ;
||Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA. ;California Univ., Los Angeles. School of Public Health.;Health Effects Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.
Statistical analysis ;
Probability theory ;
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The paper describes conditions under which epidemiologic data can provide estimates of the excess fraction (proportionate increase in caseload due to an exposure) and the etiologic fraction (fraction of cases caused by exposure). The excess fraction can be estimated under essentially the same conditions often cited for general study validity. In contrast, estimation of the etiologic fraction will usually require very specific non-identifiable assumptions about exposure action and interactions, although one can derive simple lower and upper bounds for the fraction from survival comparisons. The etiologic fraction is equivalent to the probability of causation. (Copyright (c) 1989 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.)