Record Display for the EPA National Library Catalog


Main Title Summary of Risk Assessment Methodologies for Municipal Sludge Reuse or Disposal Options.
Author Bruins, R. J. F. ; Fradkin, L. ; Stara, J. F. ;
CORP Author Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Publisher 1989
Year Published 1989
Report Number EPA/600/D-89/016;
Stock Number PB89-218168
Additional Subjects Sludge disposal ; Air pollution ; Water pollution ; Municipalities ; Meetings ; Risk ; Exposure ; Food chains ; Toxicity ; Ground water ; Earth fills ; Incinerators ; Concentrations(Composition) ; Mathematical models ; Environmental transport ; Reprints ; Land application ; Ocean waste disposal
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
NTIS  PB89-218168 Some EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. 07/26/2022
Collation 7p
Risk assessment methods have been developed which can be used to calculate criteria for controlling toxic pollutants in municipal wastewater sludges. These methods consist of algorithms, ranging from simple to complex, which allow calculation of exposure and risk from various sludge disposal practices. These calculations may show a need for management practice controls or for numerical limits on specific pollutants. Criteria for land-applied or distributed and marketed sludge may take the form of application rate limits (kg/ha) or concentration limits, calculated to control pollutant levels in the food chain or off-site movement in air or water. Criteria for landfilled sludge are defined in terms of acceptable leachate concentrations, as determined by an appropriate leachate characterization test, to prevent excessive groundwater contamination of vapor emission.