Simulation models have been employed to examine the effects of global climate change on forest ecosystems in the southern United States. Predictions for the region suggest a warmer climate in the next century. Shifts in forest species distribution and composition are projected in response to climate change within the next 50-80 years. A long-term decline in forest productivity could occur and timber production, biotic habitat, water quality and quantity from watersheds, soil properties, and recreation opportunities could be altered. Forest management planning by industry, non-industrial private landowners and public agencies will be influenced by climate change impacts. Forest regeneration practices, silvicultural treatments and rotation lengths in natural and managed forest may need to be adjusted to cope with climate change. An increase in risk associated with climate change events will likely influence investment decisions regarding intensive forest management by owners and managers.