Inhalation of organic solvents can affect vigilance and reaction time in humans. An animal model of vigilance was designed to assess the effects of toluene on these processes. Signal detection analysis showed that sensitivity (Sensitivity Index, SI) and response bias (Responsivity Index, RI) increased with signal intensity, indicating that loud signals were more detectable than soft signals and that the animals' criterion for responding signal increased with signal intensity. Response latency for correct choices was faster for signal trials than for blank trials. Toluene vapor was added to the airstream of these chambers at concentrations of 0, 1000, 1500, or 2000 ppm, either 10 or 30 min before testing and for the duration of each 1-h test. In air, SI increased across the duration of the test; this within-session improvement was reversed by toluene. RI did not change in air; it was decreased by toluene at the beginning of each exposure session, returned to the control level during exposure 1000 and 1500 ppm toluene and exceeded air control after 40 min exposure to 2000 ppm toluene. Latency increased monotonically across toluene concentrations and time on test. Neither signal intensity nor the duration of toluene exposure before testing altered these effects of toluene.