In an effort to determine the impact of kerosene heater emissions on indoor air quality, measurements were made in and around two mobile homes at a rural mobile home park near Apex, NC. The sampling was performed at two single-wide mobile homes equipped with kerosene heaters. The concentrations of acidic aerosols and gases, fine and coarse particulate aerosol mass, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and semivolatiles, were determined for periods of heater operation and for periods in which heaters were not operated. Simultaneous outdoor measurements of acid aerosols and gases, fine and coarse aerosol mass, and volatile organic compounds were conducted to determine the contribution of outdoor pollutants to the indoor concentrations. Comparisons between the concentrations obtained from the analysis of outdoor, heater-on, and heater-off samples allowed the authors to examine the impacts of the kerosene emissions on indoor concentrations. Concentrations of sulfates, aerosol strong acidity, fine and coarse aerosol mass, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide were found to be higher when the heater was operated; however, these heater-on concentrations were comparable to those observed in moderately polluted atmospheres. Indoor concentrations of nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides during heater operation were found to be considerably higher than those observed in polluted atmospheres. Finally, use of kerosene heaters was found to be responsible for increased concentrations of non-methane volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds indoors. Acid aerosol indoor concentrations were quite variable during the study and were found to exist in the presence of excess ammonia.