Lifetime cancer or unit risk estimates for trichloroethylene (TRI) have been calculated on the basis of metabolized dose-tumor incidence relationships. Previously, it was common practice to directly extrapolate exposure dose-tumor incidence data from laboratory animal studies to predict cancer risks in humans. Such direct species-to-species extrapolations, however, do not take into account potentially important species differences in pharmacokinetics. The consideration and use of pharmacokinetics and metabolic data can significantly reduce, though not eliminate, uncertainties inherent in species-to-species, route-to-route, and high- to low-dose extrapolations. The total amount of TRI metabolized was considered in the most recent EPA Health Assessment Document for Trichloroethylene to be the effective dose (EFD) produced tumors.