The paper discusses the effect of alternate fuels and fluidized coal combustion in controlling the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The current trend in energy use in the U.S. is toward greater use of coal and coal derived fuels, and on ensuring that these fuels are produced and burned in an environmentally acceptable manner. Three approaches are being pursued to control pollutant emissions: direct coal combustion in conventional boilers with stack gas desulfurization; fluid-bed coal combustion with desulfurization in the bed; and conversion or cleaning to remove sulfur from the fuel before combustion. The major pollutants to be controlled are particulate, sulfur oxides (SOx) and NOx. Each approach is distinguished by its method of SOx control. The particulate control method also depends on the specific approach. However, the techniques for NOx control have a common basis for all three approaches; that is, alterating the conditions under which combustion takes place. Combustion process modification is the most widely accepted method for control of NOx from stationary sources. Much knowledge has been accumulated on both experimental and practical systems directly fired with coal and other fossil fuels; however, attention has only recently turned to alternate methods for coal utilization. For that reason, this paper emphasizes describing available information both on emission characteristics of clean(low sulfur) coal derived gaseous and liquid fuels and on direct coal combustion in fluidized beds.