||Biological Phosphorus Removal: A Technology Evaluation (Journal Version).
Tetreault, M. J. ;
Benedict, A. H. ;
Kaempfer, C. ;
Barth, E. F. ;
||Brown and Caldwell, Pleasant Hill, CA. ;Lee (Robert E.) and Associates, Inc., Green Bay, WI. ;Barth Tec, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.;Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Water Engineering Research Lab.
Activated sludge process ;
Sewage treatment ;
Anaerobic processes ;
||Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy.
Field investigations at four full-scale biological phosphorus removal plants (two mainstream operationally modified activated sludge and two sidestream PhoStrip plants) evaluated design, operation, and performance. Process-operating conditions, achievable effluent phosphorus concentrations, nitrification effects, and impacts from solids handling operations were defined. The processes achieved less than 1 mg/L effluent total phosphorus without tertiary treatment, even under nitrifying conditions. Both suspended and soluble phosphorus forms were removed. BOD5 and TSS were removed to advanced treatment levels. Influent BOD5:P, anaerobic contact period, aerobic phosphorus uptake, and solids handling affected performance. The mainstream processes performed well with influent BOD5:Total P greater than 20; the PhoStrip process operated effectively at lower ratios because of sidestream chemical phosphorus removal.