|Assessment of the Temporal Relationship between Daily Summertime Ultra-Fine Particulate Count Concentration with PM2.5 and Black Carbon Soot in Washington, DC.
Allen, G. ;
Abt, E. ;
Koutrakis, P. ;
Burton, R. ;
|Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. National Exposure Research Lab. ;Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
Air pollution monitoring ;
District of Columbia ;
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Several recent epidemiological studies have shown a significant relationship between ambient daily particulate mass concentrations and human health effects as measured by cardio-pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Much of the current research aimed at determining causal agents of these PM health effects focuses on fine mass (PM2.5), which is primarily the combustion-related component of PM10. Some studies have suggested that ultra-fine aerosols (typically defined as those particles that are less than 0.1 or 0.15 micrometers in diameter) may be an important category of particulate matter to consider, as opposed to or in addition to other measures of fine particle mass. One of the postulated toxicological mechanisms for ultra-fine particles is that it is the number of particles which is most important, and not necessarily their composition or mass. Some studies suggest that the count concentration could be important by overwhelming macrophages. Another possible particle metric that could be important in health-effect outcomes is particle surface area, which may serve as a condensation surface for gas phase components that are then deposited deep in the lung.