Designing Schemes for Survey and Monitoring -- Modes of Sampling and Statistical Inference -- Basic Design Principles -- Major Design Decisions -- Optimization of Sample Selection -- Sampling in Space -- to Sampling in Space -- Global Quantities in Space -- Local Quantities in Space -- Variograms -- Sampling in Time -- to Sampling in Time -- Global Quantities in Time -- Local Quantities in Time -- Time-Series Models -- Sampling in Space-Time -- to Sampling in Space-Time -- Global Quantities in Space-Time -- Local Quantities in Space-Time. "Canyougivemeareferencetoabookonmonitoring?"isthekindofquestion wearefrequentlyaskedbycolleagueswhoareplanningtodesignamonitoring scheme. Although this is a perfectly reasonable question, we became incre- inglyuneasy,becausewehadtoadmitthat,toourknowledge,abookmeeting these researchers' needs did not exist. More frustration built up as monitoring projects grew in number, diversity and importance in our research envir- ment. Therefore, after much hesitation, we decided to try and write such a bookourselves.Butwhywerewenotsatis?edwiththeexistingliterature?Let us spell this out in some detail, because this explains largely why we wrote this book the way we did. Thereareseveralbooksandchaptersofbooksdealingwiththesubject of monitoring, i.e., sampling in space, time or space-time. These books - cus on applications within a particular discipline, for instance hydrology or vegetation science, and of course treat only the methodology relevant to that discipline. In doing so, they normally use the scienti?c jargon common to that ?eld.However,scientistsworkinginother?eldsmayneeddi?erentmonitoring methods and may also pro?t from a more generic presentation. Furthermore, we disagree with some of the existing texts on statistical grounds. Our cri- cism relates to misconceptions about the di?erences between the design-based and the model-based approach to sampling.