A literature review of published and unpublished data was conducted to identify all conceivable alternative on-site systems, including wastewater manipulation, treatment and disposal options. Wastewater manipulation options included flow reduction, wasteload reduction and waste segregation. Treatment options included disinfection, biological, and physical/chemical methods. Disposal options included air, soil and surface water methods, and practical combinations. Both tested and untested systems were identified, and combinations of the various components were developed. An equipment inventory was then performed to determine the availability of hardware for the systems and system components identified. Data on engineering, economic, and environmental acceptability characteristics were collected. These systems were evaluated on the basis of performance, operation and maintenance, environmental acceptability, and total annual cost for 15 specific site conditions. Site conditions were defined by soil percolation rate, soil depth, slope, available land area, direct discharge effluent requirements, and net evaporation.