||Seasonal Toxicity of Ammonia to Five Fish and Nine Invertebrate Species.
Arthur, J. W. ;
West, C. W. ;
Allen, K. N. ;
Hedtke, S. F. ;
||Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
Aquatic animals ;
Seasonal variations ;
Stream pollution ;
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The effects of ammonia toxicity were determined for 14 aquatic species (5 fish and 9 invertebrates) in short-term laboratory tests. Forty-five tests were conducted and individual 96-h values (48-h for cladocera) ranged from 0.26 to 22.8 mg/1 NH3. The most sensitive fish and invertebrate species tested with ammonia were the rainbow trout and fingernail clam with geometric mean LC50 values of 0.53 and 1.10 mg/1 NH3, respectively. The most tolerant organisms were caddisfly and crayfish species. Differences in toxicity to ammonia among the fish species was a factor of four and a factor of 17 times for the tested invertebrate species. The short-term tests did not demonstrate a relationship between unionized ammonia (NH3) toxicity and test temperature.