||Laboratory Spawning of Topsmelt, 'Atherinops affinis', with Notes on Culture and Growth of Larvae.
Middaugh, D. P. ;
Anderson, B. S. ;
Hemmer, M. J. ;
||Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL. ;California Univ., Santa Cruz. Inst. of Marine Sciences. ;California State Dept. of Fish and Game, Monterey. Marine Pollution Studies Lab.
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Topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) were spawned repeatedly in the laboratory from May to July 1989. A periodic 'temperature spike' from the holding temperature of approximately 18 up to approximately 20.5 C, introduced at 7- to 9-d intervals, resulted in maximum production of viable embryos on the fourth morning after the spike. Examination of embryonic stages and comparison to known developmental rates for Atherinops affinis embryos revealed that spawning was generally nocturnal, occurring between 1900 and 0500 h. Survival of embryonic and larval Atherinops affinis cultured at 21 + or - 1 C and 20 + or - 2 0/00 salinity was excellent (>80 percent). A larval growth curve was developed for the first 24 d post-hatch.