||Application of Benchmark Dose Methodology to a Variety of Endpoints and Exposures.
Haber, L. ;
Allen, B. ;
Seed, J. ;
Gan, K. ;
||ICF Kaiser International, Inc., Fairfax, VA.;Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. National Center for Environmental Assessment.
||EOA-68-D2-0129; NCEA-W-0358 ; EPA/600/R-97/138
Environmental exposure pathway ;
Risk assessment ;
Health hazards ;
Health effects ;
Dose-response relationships ;
Environmental pollution ;
Mathematical models ;
Statistical data ;
Benchmark dose ;
||Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy.
The series of reports included in this volume is the result of an effort to gain wider experience with the use of the benchmark dose (BMD) approach for a variety of endpoints of toxicity for several environmental agents. The reports on each chemical were developed individually, but have been collected in this document to make the series of reports more easily available as a group of separate but related efforts. One of the novel BMD approaches explored in detail for the first time in these reports was the modeling and calculation of BMDs for continuous data. In particular, the use of the hybrid model developed by Gaylor and Slikker and elaborated by Crump was explored in detail here using the BENCH-C software developed by ICF Kaiser. Characteristics of the model are dependent on the background rate of effects, variability in the data, and determination of a cut-point for what is considered an adverse degree of change in a response. These reports explore several approaches by varying the parameters of background rate and cut-point, and choosing different levels of the probability of abnormal response.