Bisphenol A inhibits follicle growth and induces atresia in cultured mouse antral follicles independently of the genomic estrogenic pathway.
Peretz J, Craig ZR, Flaws JA. Bisphenol A inhibits follicle growth and induces atresia in cultured mouse antral follicles independently of the genomic estrogenic pathway. Biology of Reproduction 2012;87(3):63 (11 pp.).
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical used to manufacture many commonly used plastic and epoxy resin-based products. BPA ubiquitously binds to estrogen receptors throughout the body, including estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in the ovary. Few studies have investigated the effects of BPA on ovarian antral follicles. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that BPA alters cell cycle regulators and induces atresia in antral follicles via the genomic estrogenic pathway, inhibiting follicle growth. To test this hypothesis, we isolated antral follicles from 32- to 35-day-old control and Esr1-overexpressing mice and cultured them with vehicle control (dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]) or BPA (1-100 μg/ml). Additionally, antral follicles were isolated from 32- to 35-day-old FVB mice and cultured with DMSO, BPA (1-100 μg/ml), estradiol (10 nM), ICI 182,780 (ICI; 1 μM), BPA plus ICI, or BPA plus estradiol. Follicles were measured for growth every 24 h for 96-120 h and processed either for analysis of estrogen receptor, cell cycle, and/or atresia factor mRNA expression, or for histological evaluation of atresia. Results indicate that estradiol and ICI do not protect follicles from BPA-induced growth inhibition and that estradiol does not protect follicles from BPA-induced atresia. Furthermore, overexpressing Esr1 does not increase susceptibility of follicles to BPA-induced growth inhibition. Additionally, BPA up-regulates Cdk4, Ccne1, and Trp53 expression, whereas it down-regulates Ccnd2 expression. BPA also up-regulates Bax and Bcl2 expression while inducing atresia in antral follicles. These data indicate that BPA abnormally regulates cell cycle and atresia factors, and this may lead to atresia and inhibited follicle growth independently of the genomic estrogenic pathway.