Final Report: Relationship Between PM2.5 Semi-volatile Organic Material, Other PM2.5 Components and Heart Rate Variability in The Elderly

EPA Grant Number: R827993
Title: Relationship Between PM2.5 Semi-volatile Organic Material, Other PM2.5 Components and Heart Rate Variability in The Elderly
Investigators: Eatough, Delbert J. , Pope, Clive Arden
Institution: Brigham Young University
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: February 1, 2000 through January 31, 2003
Project Amount: $797,013
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter Health Effects (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air , Health Effects

Objective:

Two hypothesis were tested in the STAR research program: (1) Total fine particulate mass, including semi-volatile PM is the appropriate surrogate for health-effect-related monitoring. (2) The usefulness of monitoring data will be improved with the collection of 1-hour data. EPA has promulgated a new fine particle standard based on a 24-hour measurement of PM2.5 mass using a single filter as specified by the Federal Reference Method (FRM). The FRM collection and equilibration process removes particle bound water but also results in the lost of a significant fraction of semi-volatile material such as ammonium nitrate and semi-volatile organic compounds. Techniques, such as the TEOM monitor, which attempt to make continuous measurements of PM2.5 mass, must heat the sample to remove the particle-bound water and in so doing evaporate much of the semi-volatile PM. As a result, there is currently no accepted method for continuous measurement of the mass of PM2.5, including the semi-volatile species as they exist in the atmosphere. Therefore, continuous measurements and PM2.5 composition data of both the stable and semi-volatile fine particulate material are needed to better understand the relationship between exposure to PM2.5 and the development of health problems.

 

  • BYU EPA STAR research program explored the hypothesis that fine particulate mass, including semi-volatile PM is associated with acute changes in cardiac rhythm and markers of inflamation. To test this hypothesis, concentrations, composition, and sources of fine particulate matter have been determined on a 1-h average basis at three locations during two winter and one summer intensive study. On the same time basis, ambulatory ECG monitoring has been conducted in panels of elderly participants to evaluate acute changes in cardiac rhythm. Also, repeated blood samples have been taken from these same participants to analyze markers of inflamation and hemostatic function.

 

  • monitoring and health evaluation goals of this study have been: (1) Obtain 1-hr total PM2.5 using a newly-developed, continuous monitor (RAMS) for total (nonvolatile plus semi-volatile) PM2.5 mass during summer and winter episodes. (2) Determine 1-hr total particulate number (nuclei mode) during the same time periods. (3) Determine the diurnal variability in the composition and sources of PM2.5 with emphasis on semi-volatile organic material and nitrate, fine particulate sulfate, nitrate, organic material, soot, acidity, and Fe (and other transition metals) using diffusion denuder samplers. (4) Evaluate, in part, the health-relevance of the various PM2.5 and relevant gaseous co-pollutants concentrations by correlation with various health measures including heart rate, heart rate variability, and measures of inflamation in elderly subjects during the summer and winter episodes.

 

 

  • goals have been addressed in a two-year monitoring program, including two summer and two winter multiple-episode studies in three communities, Salt Lake City, UT, Bountiful, UT and Lindon, UT. communities were chosen because they were expected to have PM2.5 concentrations above the new NAAQS, the composition of aerosols in the three communities provides significant differences among the chemical species to be studied, and the concentrations of ozone and SO2 will be nominal at the three study locations. Each of the locations studied has the advantage that co-pollutant gas concentrations and needed meteorological parameters were available from collocated state of Utah monitoring sites.

 

There are many research projects that have and are evaluating health associations with size fractionated particle mass. There are also several studies evaluating associations with particle number. This project has monitored semi-volatile organic material, in addition to fine particulate number, composition and mass, and evaluated potential associations between these concentrations and important physiologic measures of human cardiovascular health.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

The Salt Lake City EPA STAR/EMPACT Project has accomplished the following:

 

  • Established a state-of-the-art monitoring facility in Salt Lake for atmospheric monitoring to determine the time- and health-relevance of continuous determination of PM2.5 mass and composition by a variety of sampling techniques.

  • Validated the use of a new sampler, RAMS, for the continuous measurement of PM2.5 mass, including the semi-volatile species.

  • Determined that semi-volatile material is a major constituent of the Salt Lake aerosol, and that this material is not correctly monitored by either the EPA PM2.5 Federal Reference Method or the equivalent real-time TEOM monitor method.

  • Established a web site ( http://empact.byu.edu/ ) to provide the research data obtained at the Salt Lake City EMPACT site and information on the goals and significance of the project to the public. The site is made real-time PM2.5 data available to the public during the sampling program.

  • Conducted an education program at the elementary school where the Salt Lake EMPACT sampling site is located.

  • Conducted health studies during two winter and one summer period to establish the health-relevance of the real-time data being obtained at the Salt Lake City EMPACT site. Measure of heart autonomic function and blood inflammation were obtained in panels of elderly volunteers.


Journal Articles on this Report : 12 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 27 publications 15 publications in selected types All 15 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Carter CB, Eatough NL, Eatough DJ, Olson N, Long RW. Comparison of speciation sampler and PC-BOSS fine particulate matter organic material results obtained in Lindon, Utah, during the winter of 2001-2002. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2008;58(1):65-71. R827993 (2003)
R827993 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Grover BD, Carter CB, Kleinman MA, Richards JS, Eatough NL, Eatough DJ, Dasgupta PK, Al-Horr R, Ullah SMR. Monitoring and source apportionment of fine particulate matter at Lindon, Utah. Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(10):941-951. R827993 (2002)
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    R831074 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Long RW, Eatough NL, Eatough DJ, Meyer MB, Wilson WE. Continuous determination of fine particulate matter mass in the Salt Lake City Environmental Monitoring Project: a comparison of real-time and conventional TEOM monitor results. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2005;55(12):1839-1846. R827993 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Journal Article Modey WK, Pang Y, Eatough NL, Eatough DJ. Fine particulate (PM2.5) composition in Atlanta, USA: assessment of the particle concentrator-Brigham Young University organic sampling system, PC-BOSS, during the EPA supersite study. Atmospheric Environment 2001;35(36):6493-6502. R827993 (2000)
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  • Journal Article Obeidi F, Eatough DJ. Continuous measurement of semivolatile fine particulate mass in Provo, Utah. Aerosol Science and Technology 2002;36(2):191-203. R827993 (2002)
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  • Full-text: Taylor and Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Pang Y, Ren Y, Obeidi F, Hastings R, Eatough DJ, Wilson WE. Semi-volatile species in PM2.5:Comparison of integrated and continuous samplers for PM2.5 research or monitoring. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2001;51(1):25-36. R827993 (2002)
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  • Journal Article Pope CA, Eatough DJ, Gold DR, Pang Y, Nielsen KR, Nath P, Verrier RL, Kanner RE. Acute exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and heart rate variability. Environmental Health Perspectives 2001;109(7):711-716. R827993 (2003)
    R827993 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Pope CA, Hansen ML, Long RW, Nielsen KR, Eatough NL, Wilson WE, Eatough DJ. Ambient particulate air pollution, heart rate variability, and blood markers of inflammation in a panel of elderly subjects. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(3):339-345. R827993 (2002)
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  • Journal Article Eatough DJ, Eatough NL, Obeidi F, Pang Y, Modey W, Long R. Continuous determination of PM2.5 mass, including semi-volatile species. Aerosol Science and Technology 2001;34(1):1-8. R827993 (2000)
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    R825367 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Long RW, Smith R, Smith S, Eatough NL, Mangelson NF, Eatough DJ, Pope CA, Wilson WE. Sources of fine particulate material along the Wasatch Front. Energy & Fuels 2002;16(2):282-293. R827993 (2000)
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  • Full-text: ACS-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Eatough DJ, Long RW, Modey WK, Eatough NL. Semi-volatile secondary organic aerosol in urban atmospheres: meeting a measurement challenge. Atmospheric Environment 2003;37(9-10):1277-1292. R827993 (2002)
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  • Journal Article Long RW, Eatough NL, Mangelson NF, Thompson W, Fiet K, Smith S, Smith R, Eatough DJ, Pope CA, Wilson WE. The measurement of PM2.5, including semi-volatile components, in the EMPACT program:results from the Salt Lake City Study. Atmospheric Environment 2003;37(31):4407-4417. R827993 (2001)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    RFA, Scientific Discipline, Health, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, particulate matter, Health Risk Assessment, air toxics, Susceptibility/Sensitive Population/Genetic Susceptibility, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Physical Processes, tropospheric ozone, genetic susceptability, ambient air quality, elderly adults, sensitive populations, cardiopulmonary responses, fine particles, health risks, human health effects, PM 2.5, stratospheric ozone, semi-volatile organic material, ambient air, cardiovascular vulnerability, exposure, heart rate variability, air pollution, chemical mixtures, cardiopulmonary response, chronic health effects, human exposure, particulate exposure, highrisk groups, blood pressure, environmentally caused disease, human susceptibility, mortality, age dependent response, Federal Reference Method, air quality, atmospheric chemistry, cardiac arrhythmias, human health risk, transition metals, toxics

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2000 Progress Report
  • 2001 Progress Report