2003 Progress Report: Relationship Between PM2.5 Semi-volatile Organic Material, Other PM2.5 Components and Heart Rate Variability in The Elderly

EPA Grant Number: R827993
Title: Relationship Between PM2.5 Semi-volatile Organic Material, Other PM2.5 Components and Heart Rate Variability in The Elderly
Investigators: Eatough, Delbert J. , Pope, Clive Arden
Institution: Brigham Young University
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: February 1, 2000 through January 31, 2003
Project Period Covered by this Report: February 1, 2003 through January 31, 2004
Project Amount: $797,013
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter Health Effects (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air , Health Effects

Objective:

Two hypotheses were tested during the research project: (1) total fine particulate mass, including semi-volatile particulate matter (PM), is the appropriate surrogate for health-effect-related monitoring; and (2) the usefulness of monitoring data will be improved with the collection of 1-hour data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated a new fine particle standard based on a 24-hour measurement of PM2.5 mass using a single filter as specified by the Federal Reference Method (FRM). The FRM collection and equilibration process removes particle-bound water but also results in the loss of a significant fraction of semi-volatile material such as ammonium nitrate and semi-volatile organic compounds. Techniques such as the TEOM monitor, which attempt to make continuous measurements of PM2.5 mass, must heat the sample to remove the particle-bound water, which evaporates much of the semi-volatile PM. As a result, there is currently no accepted method for continuous measurement of the mass of PM2.5, including the semi-volatile species as they exist in the atmosphere. Therefore, continuous measurements and PM2.5 composition data of both the stable and semi-volatile fine PM are needed to better understand the relationship between exposure to PM2.5 and the development of health problems.

The monitoring and health evaluation objectives were to:

  1. obtain 1-hour total PM2.5 using a newly developed, continuous monitor (RAMS) for total (nonvolatile plus semi-volatile) PM2.5 mass during summer and winter episodes;
  2. determine 1-hour total particulate number (nuclei mode) during the same time periods;
  3. determine the diurnal variability in the composition and sources of PM2.5, with emphasis on semi-volatile organic material and nitrate, fine particulate sulfate, nitrate, organic material, soot, acidity, and Fe (and other transition metals) using diffusion denuder samplers;
  4. and evaluate, in part, the health-relevance of the various PM2.5 and relevant gaseous copollutant concentrations by correlation with various health measures, including heart rate, heart rate variability, and measures of inflamation in elderly subjects during the summer and winter episodes.

These objectives have been addressed in a 2-year monitoring program, including two summer and two winter multiple-episode studies in three communities: Salt Lake City, UT, Bountiful, UT, and Lindon, UT. These communities were chosen because they were expected to have PM2.5 concentrations above the new National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The composition of aerosols in the three communities provides significant differences among the chemical species to be studied, and the concentrations of ozone and SO2 will be nominal at the three study locations. Each of these locations studied has the advantage that copollutant gas concentrations and needed meteorological parameters were available from collocated State of Utah monitoring sites.

Progress Summary:

This research program explored the hypothesis that fine particulate mass, including semi-volatile PM, is associated with acute changes in cardiac rhythm and markers of inflamation. To test this hypothesis, concentrations, composition, and sources of fine PM have been determined on a 1-hour average basis at three locations during two winter studies and one summer intensive study. On the same time basis, ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring has been conducted in panels of elderly participants to evaluate acute changes in cardiac rhythm. Furthermore, repeated blood samples have been taken from these same participants to analyze markers of inflamation and hemostatic function.

During the research project, we accomplished the following:

  1. Evaluated the usefulness of a newly developed, real-time, continuous monitor (RAMS) for measurement of total (nonvolatile plus semi-volatile) PM2.5 mass, particularly the time- and health-relevance of this method, as compared to other measurements of PM2.5 parameters.
  2. Intercompared a variety of batch (24-hour) and continuous (1-hour) PM2.5 measurement methods, including equilibrated mass (FRM), nonvolatile mass (TEOM), total mass (RAMS, the new method), particulate carbon (R&P monitor), soot (Anderson Aethalometer), and particle number. The sum of 24 hourly mass measurements also has been compared to mass measured by 24-hour filter collections and Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS) results.
  3. Obtained health data to determine the health-relevance of the various PM2.5 measurements by correlation with health measures.

Details of the study sites, the instrumentation used, and the main observations have been given in the three annual reports.

Work Completed Since the Third Annual Report

At the time the third annual report was submitted, the sampling program, including the health related studies, had been completed. The effort included in those studies was detailed in the first two annual reports. A special study at the Lindon sampling site to evaluate source apportionment techniques used in the program was reported in the third annual report. Since the completion of the sampling program, the research project has been directed towards analysis of the data and preparation of the results for publication. A 1-year extension was approved for the completion of this data analysis phase of the research project. The research project has been completed.

Major Milestones or Accomplishments

  • Established a state-of-the-art monitoring facility in Salt Lake City for atmospheric monitoring to determine the time- and health-relevance of continuous determination of PM2.5 mass and composition by a variety of sampling techniques.
  • Validated the use of a new sampler, RAMS, for the continuous measurement of PM2.5 mass, including the semi-volatile species.
  • Determined that semi-volatile material is a major constituent of the Salt Lake City aerosol, and that this material is not correctly monitored by either the EPA PM2.5 FR M or the equivalent real-time TEOM monitoring method.
  • Established a Web site to provide the research data obtained at the Salt Lake City EMPACT site and information on the objectives and significance of the research project to the public. The Web site has made real-time PM2.5 data available to the public during the sampling program.
  • Conducted an education program at the elementary school where the Salt Lake City EMPACT sampling site is located.
  • Conducted health studies during two winter and one summer period to establish the health-relevance of the real-time data being obtained at the Salt Lake City EMPACT site. Measure of heart autonomic function and blood inflammation were obtained in panels of elderly volunteers.
  • Published articles related to the above accomplishments as outlined in the next section.


Journal Articles on this Report : 12 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 27 publications 15 publications in selected types All 15 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Carter CB, Eatough NL, Eatough DJ, Olson N, Long RW. Comparison of speciation sampler and PC-BOSS fine particulate matter organic material results obtained in Lindon, Utah, during the winter of 2001-2002. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2008;58(1):65-71. R827993 (2003)
R827993 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Full Text-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Grover BD, Carter CB, Kleinman MA, Richards JS, Eatough NL, Eatough DJ, Dasgupta PK, Al-Horr R, Ullah SMR. Monitoring and source apportionment of fine particulate matter at Lindon, Utah. Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(10):941-951. R827993 (2002)
    R827993 (2003)
    R827993 (Final)
    R831074 (2007)
    R831074 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor and Francis-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Taylor and Francis-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Taylor and Francis-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Long RW, Modey WK, Smith PS, Smith R, Merrill C, Pratt J, Stubbs A, Eatough NL, Eatough DJ, Malm WC, Wilson WE. One- and three-hour PM2.5 characterization, speciation, and source apportionment using continuous and integrated samplers. Aerosol Science and Technology 2005;39(3):238-248. R827993 (2002)
    R827993 (2003)
  • Full-text: Informa World Full Text
    Exit
  • Abstract: Informa World Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Modey WK, Pang Y, Eatough NL, Eatough DJ. Fine particulate (PM2.5) composition in Atlanta, USA: assessment of the particle concentrator-Brigham Young University organic sampling system, PC-BOSS, during the EPA supersite study. Atmospheric Environment 2001;35(36):6493-6502. R827993 (2000)
    R827993 (2001)
    R827993 (2003)
    R827993 (Final)
  • Full-text: Science Direct-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Science Direct-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Science Direct-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Obeidi F, Eatough DJ. Continuous measurement of semivolatile fine particulate mass in Provo, Utah. Aerosol Science and Technology 2002;36(2):191-203. R827993 (2002)
    R827993 (2003)
    R827993 (Final)
    R825367 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor and Francis-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Taylor and Francis-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Pang Y, Ren Y, Obeidi F, Hastings R, Eatough DJ, Wilson WE. Semi-volatile species in PM2.5:Comparison of integrated and continuous samplers for PM2.5 research or monitoring. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2001;51(1):25-36. R827993 (2002)
    R827993 (2003)
    R827993 (Final)
    R825367 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor & Francis-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Pope CA, Eatough DJ, Gold DR, Pang Y, Nielsen KR, Nath P, Verrier RL, Kanner RE. Acute exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and heart rate variability. Environmental Health Perspectives 2001;109(7):711-716. R827993 (2003)
    R827993 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: EHP-Full Text PDF
  • Abstract: EHP-Abstract
  • Journal Article Pope CA, Hansen ML, Long RW, Nielsen KR, Eatough NL, Wilson WE, Eatough DJ. Ambient particulate air pollution, heart rate variability, and blood markers of inflammation in a panel of elderly subjects. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(3):339-345. R827993 (2002)
    R827993 (2003)
    R827993 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: JSTOR Full Text - HTML
    Exit
  • Journal Article Wilson WE, Grover BD, Long RW, Eatough NL, Eatough DJ. The measurement of fine-particulate semivolatile material in urban aerosols. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2006;56(4):384-397 R827993 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Long RW, Smith R, Smith S, Eatough NL, Mangelson NF, Eatough DJ, Pope CA, Wilson WE. Sources of fine particulate material along the Wasatch Front. Energy & Fuels 2002;16(2):282-293. R827993 (2000)
    R827993 (2001)
    R827993 (2003)
    R827993 (Final)
  • Full-text: ACS-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ACS-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Eatough DJ, Long RW, Modey WK, Eatough NL. Semi-volatile secondary organic aerosol in urban atmospheres: meeting a measurement challenge. Atmospheric Environment 2003;37(9-10):1277-1292. R827993 (2002)
    R827993 (2003)
    R827993 (Final)
  • Full-text: Science Direct-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Science Direct-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Science Direct-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Long RW, Eatough NL, Mangelson NF, Thompson W, Fiet K, Smith S, Smith R, Eatough DJ, Pope CA, Wilson WE. The measurement of PM2.5, including semi-volatile components, in the EMPACT program:results from the Salt Lake City Study. Atmospheric Environment 2003;37(31):4407-4417. R827993 (2001)
    R827993 (2003)
    R827993 (Final)
  • Full-text: Science Direct-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Science Direct-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Science Direct-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    cardiopulmonary health effects, organic material, semi-volatile particulate species, air toxics, genetic susceptibility, particulate matter, PM, tropospheric ozone, Federal Reference Method, FRM, age-dependent response, air pollution, air quality, ambient air quality, cardiopulmonary response, atmospheric chemistry, blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiovascular vulnerability, chemical mixtures, chronic health effects, elderly adults, environmental hazard exposures, environmentally caused disease, fine particles, health risks, heart rate variability, high risk groups, human exposure, human health effects, human susceptibility, mortality, particulate exposure, sensitive populations, toxics,, RFA, Scientific Discipline, Health, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, particulate matter, Health Risk Assessment, air toxics, Susceptibility/Sensitive Population/Genetic Susceptibility, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Physical Processes, tropospheric ozone, genetic susceptability, ambient air quality, elderly adults, sensitive populations, cardiopulmonary responses, fine particles, health risks, human health effects, PM 2.5, stratospheric ozone, semi-volatile organic material, ambient air, cardiovascular vulnerability, exposure, heart rate variability, air pollution, chemical mixtures, cardiopulmonary response, chronic health effects, human exposure, particulate exposure, highrisk groups, blood pressure, environmentally caused disease, human susceptibility, mortality, age dependent response, Federal Reference Method, air quality, atmospheric chemistry, cardiac arrhythmias, human health risk, transition metals, toxics

    Relevant Websites:

    http://empact.byu.edu Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2000 Progress Report
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • Final Report