2002 Progress Report: Relationship Between PM2.5 Semi-volatile Organic Material, Other PM2.5 Components and Heart Rate Variability in The Elderly

EPA Grant Number: R827993
Title: Relationship Between PM2.5 Semi-volatile Organic Material, Other PM2.5 Components and Heart Rate Variability in The Elderly
Investigators: Eatough, Delbert J. , Pope, Clive Arden
Institution: Brigham Young University
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: February 1, 2000 through January 31, 2003
Project Period Covered by this Report: February 1, 2002 through January 31, 2003
Project Amount: $797,013
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter Health Effects (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air , Health Effects

Objective:

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is sponsoring studies at Brigham Young University (BYU) under the Science to Achieve Results (STAR) program, with additional support from the Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking (EMPACT) program to evaluate factors that influence the effect of fine particulate matter (PM) on human health, using continuous measurement of PM2.5 mass, including the semi-volatile components. Included in the program is an evaluation of the effect of changes in exposure on heart rate variability and markers of blood inflammation in elderly subjects. Ammonium nitrate and semi-volatile organic material are significant components of fine particulate material in most urban atmospheres, which are not properly identified during sampling with conventional systems because of the loss of these species from the collected particles during sampling. Techniques, such as the beta gauge and the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) monitor, which attempt to make continuous measurements of PM mass, must heat the sample to remove the particle-bound water, and in so doing, evaporate much of the semi-volatile PM. Because of this problem of removing particle-bound water, without loss of semi-volatile PM, there currently is no accepted method for continuous measurement of the mass of total PM2.5 suspended in the atmosphere.

The objectives of the STAR and EMPACT studies in Salt Lake City, Bountiful, and Lindon, UT, are to: (1) evaluate the usefulness of a newly developed, real-time, ambient mass sampler (RAMS) for total (nonvolatile plus semi-volatile) PM2.5 mass, particularly the time and health relevance of this method, as compared to other measurements of PM2.5 parameters; (2) intercompare a variety of batch (24-hour) and continuous (1-hour) PM2.5 measurement methods, including equilibrated mass Federal Reference Method (FRM), nonvolatile mass TEOM, total mass (RAMS, the new method), particulate carbon (R&P monitor), soot (Anderson Aethalometer), and particle number. The sums of 24 hourly mass measurements also are being compared to mass measured by 24-hour filter collections and Particle Concentrator-BYU Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS) results; (3) determine the health relevance of the various PM2.5 measurements by correlation with health measures; (4) identify, where possible, PM2.5 components associated with the exacerbation of cardiovascular health problems; and (5) identify monitoring paradigms that optimize health- and time-relevant monitoring strategies for PM2.5. Monitoring for the Salt Lake City EMPACT program was initiated in December 1999, and additional sampling was initiated for the STAR program in July 2000.

Progress Summary:

The following hypotheses are being tested in the STAR research program:

  • Total fine particulate mass, including semi-volatile PM, is the appropriate surrogate for health-effect-related monitoring.
  • The usefulness of monitoring data will be improved with the collection of 1-hour data.

The U.S. EPA recently promulgated a new fine particle standard based on a 24-hour measurement of PM2.5 mass using a single filter as specified by the FRM. The FRM collection and equilibration process removes particle bound water, but also results in the loss of a significant fraction of semi-volatile material such as ammonium nitrate and semi-volatile organic compounds. Techniques, such as the TEOM monitor, which attempt to make continuous measurements of PM2.5 mass, must heat the sample to remove the particle-bound water, and in so doing, evaporate much of the semi-volatile PM. As a result, there currently is no accepted method for continuous measurement of the mass of PM2.5, including the semi-volatile species as they exist in the atmosphere. Therefore, continuous measurements and PM2.5 composition data of both the stable and semi-volatile fine particulate material are needed to better understand the relationship between exposure to PM2.5 and the development of health problems.

The BYU STAR research project is exploring the hypothesis that fine particulate mass, including semi-volatile PM, is associated with acute changes in cardiac rhythm and markers of inflammation. To test this hypothesis, concentrations, composition, and sources of fine PM have been determined on a 1-hour average basis at three locations during two winter and two summer intensive studies. On the same time basis, ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring has been conducted in panels of elderly participants to evaluate acute changes in cardiac rhythm. Also, repeated blood samples have been taken from these same participants to analyze markers of inflammation and hemostatic function.

The monitoring and health evaluation objectives of this research project are to: (1) obtain 1-hour total PM2.5 using a newly developed, continuous monitor for total (nonvolatile plus semi-volatile) PM2.5 mass during summer and winter episodes; (2) determine 1-hour total particulate number (nuclei mode) during the same time periods; (3) determine the diurnal variability in the composition and sources of PM2.5 with emphasis on semi-volatile organic material and nitrate, fine particulate sulfate, nitrate, organic material, soot, acidity, and Fe (and other transition metals) using diffusion denuder samplers; and (4) evaluate, in part, the health relevance of the various PM2.5 and relevant gaseous copollutant concentrations by correlation with various health measures including heart rate, heart rate variability, and measures of inflammation in elderly subjects during the summer and winter episodes.

These objectives have been addressed in a 2-year monitoring program, including two summer and two winter multiple-episode studies in three communities (Salt Lake City, Bountiful, and Lindon, UT). These communities were chosen because they were expected to have PM2.5 concentrations above the new National Ambient Air Quality Standards, the composition of aerosols in the three communities provides significant differences among the chemical species to be studied, and the concentrations of ozone and SO2 will be nominal at the three study locations. Each of the locations studied has the advantage that copollutant gas concentrations and needed meteorological parameters were available from collocated state of Utah monitoring sites.

There are many research projects that have and are evaluating health associations with size- fractionated particle mass. There also are several studies that evaluate associations with particle number. This project has monitored semi-volatile organic material, in addition to fine particulate number, composition, and mass, and evaluated potential associations between these concentrations and important physiologic measures of human cardiovascular health.

Work Completed to Date on the U.S. EPA STAR Program

Summary. The STAR program studies in Salt Lake City, Bountiful, and Lindon, UT, have accomplished the following to date:

  • Evaluated the usefulness of a newly developed, real-time, continuous monitor for measurement of total (nonvolatile plus semi-volatile) PM2.5 mass, particularly the time- and health-relevance of this method, as compared to other measurements of PM2.5 parameters.
  • Intercompared a variety of batch (24-hour) and continuous (1-hour) PM2.5 measurement methods, including FRM, nonvolatile mass (TEOM), total mass (RAMS, the new method), particulate carbon (R&P monitor), soot (Anderson Aethalometer), and particle number. The sums of 24 hourly mass measurements also have been compared to mass measured by 24-hour filter collections and PC-BOSS results.
  • Obtained health data to determine the health relevance of the various PM2.5 measurements by correlation with health measures. Details of the study sites, the instrumentation used, and main observations have been given in the first two annual reports.

Work Completed Since the Second Annual Report

At the time the second annual report was submitted, the sampling program, including the health related studies, had been essentially completed. The effort included in those studies was detailed in the first two reports. During the time period from May 1–September 30, 2002, the sampling phase of the program was completed. This included a special study at the Lindon sampling site to evaluate source apportionment techniques used in the program. Since the completion of the sampling program, the research effort has been directed towards analysis of the data and preparation of the results for publication. A 1-year extension has been requested and approved for the completion of this data analysis phase of the program.

Major Milestones or Accomplishments.

The Salt Lake City STAR/EMPACT project has accomplished the following:

  • Established a state-of-the-art monitoring facility in Salt Lake City for atmospheric monitoring to determine the time- and health-relevance of continuous determination of PM2.5 mass and composition by a variety of sampling techniques.
  • Validated the use of a new sampler, RAMS, for the continuous measurement of PM2.5 mass, including the semi-volatile species.
  • Determined that semi-volatile material is a major constituent of the Salt Lake City aerosol, and that this material is not correctly monitored by either the EPA PM2.5 FRM or the equivalent real-time TEOM monitor method.
  • Established a Web site (http://empact.byu.edu/) to provide the real-time research data obtained at the Salt Lake City, Bountiful, and Lindon sites and information on the objectives and significance of the project to the public. The Web site made real-time PM2.5 data available to the public during the sampling program.
  • Conducted an education program at the elementary school, where the Salt Lake City EMPACT sampling site is located.
  • Conducted health studies during two winter and two summer periods to establish the health relevance of the real-time data being obtained at the three sampling sites. Measurements of heart autonomic function and blood inflammation were taken in panels of elderly volunteers.

Future Activities:

We will continue to:

  1. Evaluate the usefulness of RAMS for total (nonvolatile plus semi-volatile) PM2.5 mass, particularly the time and health relevance of this method, as compared to other measurements of PM2.5 parameters.
  2. Intercompare a variety of batch (24-hour) and continuous (1-hour) PM2.5 measurement methods, including equilibrated mass Federal Reference Method (FRM), nonvolatile mass TEOM, total mass (RAMS, the new method), particulate carbon (R&P monitor), soot (Anderson Aethalometer), and particle number. The sums of 24 hourly mass measurements also are being compared to mass measured by 24-hour filter collections and PC-BOSS results.
  3. Determine the health relevance of the various PM2.5 measurements by correlation with health measures.
  4. Identify, where possible, PM2.5 components associated with the exacerbation of cardiovascular health problems.
  5. Identify monitoring paradigms that optimize health- and time-relevant monitoring strategies for PM2.5. Monitoring for the Salt Lake City EMPACT Program was initiated in December 1999.


Journal Articles on this Report : 6 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 27 publications 15 publications in selected types All 15 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Grover BD, Carter CB, Kleinman MA, Richards JS, Eatough NL, Eatough DJ, Dasgupta PK, Al-Horr R, Ullah SMR. Monitoring and source apportionment of fine particulate matter at Lindon, Utah. Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(10):941-951. R827993 (2002)
R827993 (2003)
R827993 (Final)
R831074 (2007)
R831074 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor and Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Taylor and Francis-Abstract
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  • Other: Taylor and Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Long RW, Modey WK, Smith PS, Smith R, Merrill C, Pratt J, Stubbs A, Eatough NL, Eatough DJ, Malm WC, Wilson WE. One- and three-hour PM2.5 characterization, speciation, and source apportionment using continuous and integrated samplers. Aerosol Science and Technology 2005;39(3):238-248. R827993 (2002)
    R827993 (2003)
  • Full-text: Informa World Full Text
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  • Abstract: Informa World Abstract
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  • Journal Article Obeidi F, Eatough DJ. Continuous measurement of semivolatile fine particulate mass in Provo, Utah. Aerosol Science and Technology 2002;36(2):191-203. R827993 (2002)
    R827993 (2003)
    R827993 (Final)
    R825367 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor and Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor and Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Pang Y, Ren Y, Obeidi F, Hastings R, Eatough DJ, Wilson WE. Semi-volatile species in PM2.5:Comparison of integrated and continuous samplers for PM2.5 research or monitoring. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2001;51(1):25-36. R827993 (2002)
    R827993 (2003)
    R827993 (Final)
    R825367 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor & Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Pope CA, Hansen ML, Long RW, Nielsen KR, Eatough NL, Wilson WE, Eatough DJ. Ambient particulate air pollution, heart rate variability, and blood markers of inflammation in a panel of elderly subjects. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(3):339-345. R827993 (2002)
    R827993 (2003)
    R827993 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: JSTOR Full Text - HTML
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  • Journal Article Eatough DJ, Long RW, Modey WK, Eatough NL. Semi-volatile secondary organic aerosol in urban atmospheres: meeting a measurement challenge. Atmospheric Environment 2003;37(9-10):1277-1292. R827993 (2002)
    R827993 (2003)
    R827993 (Final)
  • Full-text: Science Direct-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Science Direct-Abstract
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  • Other: Science Direct-Full Text PDF
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    cardiopulmonary health effects, organic material, semi-volatile particulate species, air toxics, genetic susceptibility, particulate matter, PM, tropospheric ozone, federal reference method, FRM, age-dependent response, air pollution, air quality, ambient air, ambient air quality, cardiopulmonary response, atmospheric chemistry, blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiovascular vulnerability, chemical mixtures, chronic health effects, elderly adults, environmental hazard exposures, environmentally caused disease, fine particles, health risks, heart rate variability, high risk groups, human exposure, human health effects, human susceptibility, mortality, particulate exposure, semi-volatile organic material, sensitive populations, stratospheric ozone, toxics., RFA, Scientific Discipline, Health, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, particulate matter, Health Risk Assessment, air toxics, Susceptibility/Sensitive Population/Genetic Susceptibility, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Physical Processes, tropospheric ozone, genetic susceptability, ambient air quality, elderly adults, sensitive populations, cardiopulmonary responses, fine particles, health risks, human health effects, PM 2.5, stratospheric ozone, semi-volatile organic material, ambient air, cardiovascular vulnerability, exposure, heart rate variability, air pollution, chemical mixtures, cardiopulmonary response, chronic health effects, human exposure, particulate exposure, highrisk groups, blood pressure, environmentally caused disease, human susceptibility, mortality, age dependent response, Federal Reference Method, air quality, atmospheric chemistry, cardiac arrhythmias, human health risk, transition metals, toxics

    Relevant Websites:

    http://empact.byu.edu/ Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2000 Progress Report
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • Final Report