Low Temperature Combustion with Reduced PM and NOx Emissions, Achieved by n-Butanol in-Port Injected in an Omnivorous Diesel Engine

EPA Grant Number: SU835302
Title: Low Temperature Combustion with Reduced PM and NOx Emissions, Achieved by n-Butanol in-Port Injected in an Omnivorous Diesel Engine
Investigators: Soloiu, Valentin , Diebold, Alisha , Duggan, Marvin , Harp, Spencer , Jenkins, Craig , Majestic, Elizabeth , Ochieng, Henry , Turnbull, Louis , Tyler, Mathis , Weaver, Jabeous
Current Investigators: Soloiu, Valentin , Anderson, Brandon , Christian, Julia , Davoud, Sherwin , Duggan, Marvin , Glisson, David , Harp, Spencer , Ochieng, Henry , Olender, Daniel , Powell, Wesley , Purser, Scott , Rivero-Castillo, Alejandro , Tyler, Mathis , Weaver, Jabeous , Wolfe, Brian , Youmans, Hubert
Institution: Georgia Southern University
EPA Project Officer: Hahn, Intaek
Phase: I
Project Period: August 15, 2012 through August 14, 2013
Project Amount: $15,000
RFA: P3 Awards: A National Student Design Competition for Sustainability Focusing on People, Prosperity and the Planet (2012) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Pollution Prevention/Sustainable Development , P3 Challenge Area - Agriculture , P3 Challenge Area - Energy , P3 Awards , Sustainability


Despite the remarkable progress made in the recent years, the diesel engine processes still must comply with the NOx and particulate trade-off. The idling and low loads are the most harmful regimes in city driving and this technology can make a great difference in terms of soot and NOx emissions at such loads where the DPF work marginally well because of the low exhaust temperatures. The objective is the simultaneous reduction of both NOx and soot outputs by over 50% for idling and low loads, by reducing the heterogeneity and flame temperature in the engine cylinder. The project will use in investigation cotton seed biodiesel obtained from residues of SE cotton industry and n-butanol that will replace the diesel. The LTC technology coupled with the these new fuels can bring lower NOx and soot emissions for diesel engines, using biofuels produced in US from sustainable sources and generating jobs for the farmers.


The Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) is proposed to be obtained by injecting amounts of n-butanol in the intake port of a diesel engine while being fueled with cotton seeds biodiesel by direct injection in the combustion chamber. To increase the ignition delay and change the combustion phasing, the secondary fuel, the n-Butanol, will be used to reduce the OH formation reaction, increase the OH consumption reaction, while delaying the hot ignition, and premixed combustion due to its retardation of the cool-flame period. PM and NOx formation will be drastically reduced by controlling in the cylinder combustion temperature at idle and low loads while the maximum combustion temperature will be maintained between 1500-1800K to ensure reduced formation of PM and NOx and to ensure the adequate oxidation of CO and HC while maintaining the engine efficiency.

Expected Results:

The prototype of the Omnivorous engine (multifuel engine) technology developed, will be available for evaluation and will be fully instrumented for advanced investigations. The projects will reduce gaseous emissions (Soot, NOx produced by over 50% up to 80% at selected regimes). By promoting in this project n-Butanol and cotton seeds biodiesel would reduce the dependence on foreign oil while reducing the greenhouse gas emissions, and promoting sustainable economic growth and jobs creation. This project will also bring valuable information concerning the energy value of biofuels feedstocks for the ecosystem sustainability and biodiversity.

Publications and Presentations:

Publications have been submitted on this project: View all 6 publications for this project

Supplemental Keywords:

Low Temperature Combustion, LTC, omnivorous engine, n-butanol, energy conservation, alternative energy source, renewable energy, fuel efficiency, renewable fuel, emissions control technologies, design for the environment, environmental education, clean air.

Relevant Websites:

Phase 2 Abstract

Progress and Final Reports:

  • Final Report
  • P3 Phase II:

    Low Temperature Combustion with Reduced PM and NOx Emissions, Achieved by n-Butanol in-Port Injected in an Omnivorous Diesel Engine