Final Report: Characterization Of Emissions From Small, Variable Solid Fuel Combustion Sources For Determining Global Emissions And Climate Impact

EPA Grant Number: R835036
Title: Characterization Of Emissions From Small, Variable Solid Fuel Combustion Sources For Determining Global Emissions And Climate Impact
Investigators: Edwards, Rufus D. , Bond, Tami C. , Smith, Kirk R.
Institution: University of California - Irvine
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: September 1, 2011 through August 31, 2014 (Extended to August 31, 2016)
Project Amount: $900,000
RFA: Black Carbon's Role In Global To Local Scale Climate And Air Quality (2010) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Global Climate Change , Climate Change , Air


Obtain climate-relevant data from in field measurements of household stoves and rural small scale industries, using a combination of real-time measurements, chemical characterization, and statistical analysis.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

The most significant accomplishment of the current project was to increase the global total of 3 in-field emissions measurements of EC OC and PM2.5 from traditional stoves at the start of the project, by adding 174 emissions measurements from household stoves around the Himalayan region using a variety of fuels and under a range of agroclimatic conditions. In particular, the current project contributes a large number of new measurements using dung, crop residues, raw coal and mixed fuels. The increased number of in-field measurements during normal daily cooking and heating activities provides convincing evidence that emission factors for PM2.5 in g/kg dry fuel were substantially underestimated by factors that range from ~3-10 in previous emissions inventories, that consisted largely of controlled laboratory tests, and that the relative sectoral contribution of solid fuel use in household stoves to global PM2.5 concentrations is substantially larger than previously thought. There were not enough EC and OC emissions measurements for household solid fuel use in previous inventories to enable thorough comparison, which has been rectified by the current project. 
Another major accomplishment of the current project is to add 36 measurements of small scale industries in rural areas, a sector that has previously been practically uncharacterized and not included in emission inventories. Until recently little has been known about how many small-scale enterprises are present in rural areas and even less about the air pollution emission intensity of the processes being used, but there is a growing appreciation that large numbers combined with the inefficiency of the combustion processes can result in large sectoral contributions.  
We expect the data produced as part of this project will be used widely in emissions inventories used in bottom-up models by the climate modeling community to reconcile differences between bottom-up emissions models and measured atmospheric concentrations, and will inform on the overall climate and health implications of solid fuel use in households. 

Journal Articles on this Report : 3 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 18 publications 3 publications in selected types All 3 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Gautam S, Edwards R, Yadav A, Weltman R, Pillarsetti A, Arora NK, Smith KR. Probe-based measurements of moisture in dung fuel for emissions measurements. Energy for Sustainable Development 2016;35:1-6. R835036 (Final)
R835425 (2016)
  • Full-text: Research Gate-Abstract & Full Text PDF
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
  • Journal Article Lam NL, Chen Y, Weyant C, Venkataraman C, Sadavarte P, Johnson MA, Smith KR, Brem BT, Arineitwe J, Ellis JE, Bond TC. Household light makes global heat: high black carbon emissions from kerosene wick lamps. Environmental Science & Technology 2012;46(24):13531-13538. R835036 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: ES&T-Full Text HTML
  • Abstract: ES&T-Abstract
  • Other: ES&T-Full Text PDF
  • Journal Article Medina P, Berrueta V, Martínez M, Ruiz V, Edwards RD, Masera O. Comparative performance of five Mexican plancha-type cookstoves using water boiling tests. Development Engineering 2017;2:20-28. R835036 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
  • Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2012 Progress Report
  • 2013 Progress Report
  • 2014 Progress Report
  • 2015 Progress Report