Intra-Urban Variation of Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Health EffectsEPA Grant Number: R834898
Title: Intra-Urban Variation of Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Health Effects
Investigators: Ito, Kazuhiko , Clougherty, Jane E. , Matte, Thomas , Ross, Zev
Institution: New York University School of Medicine , Hunter College , New York University , University of Pittsburgh
EPA Project Officer: Ilacqua, Vito
Project Period: April 1, 2011 through March 31, 2013 (Extended to December 31, 2015)
Project Amount: $299,998
RFA: Exploring New Air Pollution Health Effects Links in Existing Datasets (2010) RFA Text | Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Health Effects , Air
Our objectives are to: (1) determine the impacts of air pollution effects on the cardiovascular health outcomes available at NYCDOHMH including cardiovascular emergency department (ED) syndrome data, hospitalizations, and mortality; (2) determine the effect modification of the cardiovascular effects by intra-urban variation of combustion sources as measured by the NYC Community Air Survey (NYCCAS); and (3) determine the effect modification of the cardiovascular effects of air pollution by socio-economic status. We have recently developed an ED syndrome indicator that is useful in determining near-real time impacts of weather and air pollution. NYC residents are exposed to multiple air pollutants coming form a variety of combustion sources including transported secondary aerosols, local sources including traffic, building space-heating, and oil burning from ships in nearby ports. NYC residents also reflect a wide range of health and socio-economic status, and therefore likely present a range of susceptibility indicators associated with neighborhood characteristics. Thus, this study will take advantage of the unique databases that have been recently developed to determine the cardiovascular effects of air pollution in a unique environmental and population settings of NYC to answer the relevant research questions.
We will build on and utilize the two unique databases that are available at NYCDOHMH: (1) cardiovascular ED syndromic surveillance data that become available daily (the day after the visits); (2) the multi-pollutant database being collected as part of the NYCCAS, which is funded by the NYC. In addition, we will combine and analyze the daily air pollution data (PM2.5 and gaseous pollutants) that are collected by NY State Department of Environmental Conservation and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization data available at NYCDOHMH. The NYCCAS study is collecting data for PM2.5, its chemical components (XRF analysis for 31 elements, and reflectometry to estimate elemental carbon [EC]), NO2, O3 (summer only), and SO2 (winter only) at 155 locations in NYC, providing a unique opportunity to evaluate intra-urban variation of air pollution at high spatial resolution. We will analyze spatially-resolved cardiovascular outcome data to evaluate the impact of multi-pollutants in a timely manner that is not possible using the administrative nationwide outcome data. Two data analytical approaches will be considered: (1) spatially-stratified time-series regression analysis; and (2) spatial Poisson regression of age-specific relative risks of cardiovascular morbidity at zip-code levels, with multiple air pollutants and socio-economic variables as explanatory variables.
The proposed project will: (1) determine cardiovascular effects of a variety of local combustion sources at high spatial resolution in a highly populated city with a wide range of health and socio-economic status; (2) determine the role of season and sub-population characteristics on the cardiovascular effects of combustion sources. These results will provide critical information for understanding the cardiovascular effects of ambient air pollution and help regulatory policy decisions to protect public health.