2013 Progress Report: Evaluation of Lead Service Line Lining and Coating Technologies

EPA Grant Number: R834865
Title: Evaluation of Lead Service Line Lining and Coating Technologies
Investigators: Case, Traci L. , Adams, Craig D. , Peltier, Edward F. , Randtke, Stephen J. , Roberson, J. Alan
Institution: Water Research Foundation , American Water Works Association , University of Kansas
EPA Project Officer: Hiscock, Michael
Project Period: January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2016
Project Period Covered by this Report: January 1, 2013 through December 31,2013
Project Amount: $600,000
RFA: Advancing Public Health Protection through Water Infrastructure Sustainability (2009) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Drinking Water , Water


The objectives of this research project are: 1) to comprehensively evaluate lead service line (LSL) lining and coating technologies as alternatives to full or partial LSL replacement, and as a means of protecting and repairing both lead and copper service lines; and 2) to provide water utilities, engineering consultants, state regulators, consumers, and other interested parties with information and supporting documentation needed to make informed decisions regarding lining and coating of both lead and copper service lines.

Progress Summary:

Task 1: Gather and Evaluate Existing Information and Identify Issues

This task includes reviewing the literature as well as contacting and obtaining relevant information from water utilities, state and provincial regulatory agencies, manufacturers, contractors, other researchers, NSF International, and other entities. Work on this task began in earnest in the project’s first year, continued into the second year, and will continue at a reduced rate for the duration of the project.

Task 2: Acquire and Evaluate Monitoring Data

Monitoring data from utilities was requested. It was discovered that there are very few existing installations in the U.S., and only a handful of past installations (later excavated or abandoned), and that only very limited amount of data is available. Available data indicate that linings and coatings effectively limit lead release from lined or coated pipes (as expected), but there is a paucity of data related to leaching of contaminants and other water quality parameters.

Task 3: Conduct Laboratory Studies

Before the laboratory studies could begin, it was first necessary to adopt or develop the analytical methods needed to determine the analytes of interest at environmentally relevant concentrations and to design experimental protocols that would allow the objectives of each experiment to be met. Methods have been developed for lead, copper, bisphenols, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), phthalate and selected phthalic acids.

Protocols were developed for the fill-and-dump experiments, and reagents and materials were tested to insure lack of interference in monitoring the organic and inorganic constituents of interest. Fill-and-dump experiments were conducted on epoxy-coated specimens of lead and copper service lines. Other experiments examining leaching of organic contaminants from epoxy-coated glass vials, hydrolysis of bisphenols and BADGE, and the reactions of bisphenols and BADGE with free and combined chlorine are in progress.

Task 4: Design and Conduct Demonstration Experiments

Initially, pilot or demonstration tests were planned, in cooperation with water utilities, on at least three lining or coating technologies. These opportunities are still being pursued, but there is currently little interest in such tests among U.S. utilities because lining or coating LSLs is not being accepted as “replacement” by regulators and utilities are waiting to see how this will be addressed in the proposed revisions to the LCR expected in 2013. Additional lab experiments combined with selective sampling of existing installations and obtaining more reports on installations in other countries is being considered.

Task 5: Build New Case Studies

Initially, detailed case studies focusing on the system-wide benefits of a large-scale LSL lining or coating program were considered. However, for various reasons, U.S. utilities are currently holding off on such studies. We are considering substituting a larger number of more streamlined case studies and including case studies from utilities in countries where such technologies are much more widely used than they are in the U.S.

Task 6: Evaluate Available Lining and Coating Technologies and Task 7: Develop Recommendations for Stakeholders

These tasks will be a major focus during the final year of the project.

Future Activities:

During the next reporting period we plan to: 1) continue to review pertinent literature, gather information from utilities, regulators, vendors, and others, with a special emphasis on those in other countries (such as the UK, The Netherlands, and Japan) were lining and coating technologies are more widely used; 2) identify opportunities to collaborate with utilities to collect field samples, participate in pilot or demonstration studies, and develop case studies; 3) conduct fill-and-dump experiments on a PET liner technology and at least one additional lining or coating technology; 4) conduct follow-up experiments examining the concentrations of metals and organic constituents in lined or coated LSLs over longer periods of time; 5) continue experiments examining leaching of organic contaminants from epoxy coatings hydrolysis of bisphenols and BADGE, and reactions of bisphenols and BADGE with free and combined chlorine; 6) conduct supplemental experiments to more comprehensively evaluate the most promising technologies; and 7) evaluate the all information obtained through the aforementioned activities.

Journal Articles:

No journal articles submitted with this report: View all 15 publications for this project

Supplemental Keywords:

health effects, human exposure, toxics, metals, leachates, solvents, public policy, mitigation, infrastructure, pinhole corrosion, infrastructure failure;

Relevant Websites:

Evaluation of Lead Service Line Lining and Coating Technologies - 4351 | Water Research Foundation Exit

Progress and Final Reports:

Original Abstract
  • 2011 Progress Report
  • 2012 Progress Report
  • 2014 Progress Report
  • 2015 Progress Report
  • Final Report