2013 Progress Report: A Multi-City Time-Series Study of Pollutant Mixtures and Acute Morbidity

EPA Grant Number: R834799C004
Subproject: this is subproject number 004 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R834799
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: The Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology: Multiscale Measurements and Modeling of Mixtures
Center Director: Tolbert, Paige
Title: A Multi-City Time-Series Study of Pollutant Mixtures and Acute Morbidity
Investigators: Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt , Bilonick, Richard , Darrow, Lyndsey , Klein, Mitchel , Mulholland, James , Russell, Armistead G. , Talbott, Evelynn , Tolbert, Paige , Winquist, Andrea
Institution: Emory University , Georgia Institute of Technology
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2016
Project Period Covered by this Report: August 1, 2012 through July 31,2013
RFA: Clean Air Research Centers (2009) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air

Objective:

Although associations between ambient air pollution and acute cardiorespiratory outcomes have been observed in numerous studies, questions remain about the degree to which these findings are generalizable between locations and whether the observed health effects are due to the individual pollutants measured or to pollutants acting in combination with other pollutants. In Project 4, we are conducting a multi-city time-series study to clarify the impacts of air quality on acute cardiorespiratory morbidity in five US cities (Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; Dallas, TX; Pittsburgh, PA; St. Louis, IL-MO) using novel mixture characterization metrics. Our overarching hypothesis is that factors related to air pollution mixtures, seasonality and climate, concentration-response functions, exposure measurement error, and population susceptibility and vulnerability can help explain apparent between-city heterogeneity in short-term associations between air quality measures and cardiorespiratory emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions (HAs).

Progress Summary:

During the current reporting period, work on Project 4 has focused on data management activities, and furthering work on single- and multi-city epidemiologic analyses, with a focus on applying spatially-resolved air quality metrics and on approaches to studying air pollution mixtures. Database development. Database activities included air quality, health outcome, and mapping focuses. We finalized our initial approach to calculating daily population-weighted averages for multiple pollutants and these data were shared among center investigators for all cities in fall 2012. Since this time, to enable more appropriate comparison of pollutant concentrations across the five cities, a revised approach to calculating population-weighted averages was developed involving fusion of monitoring and CMAQ modeled data. Data for this metric are anticipated for completion in August 2013. Health outcome data for Atlanta, Dallas, and St. Louis are complete. In the past year, data collection and processing of Birmingham and Pittsburgh data have been brought near completion. Finally, a geodatabase for the project was set up for mapping of air quality monitoring sites, hospital locations, and other study characteristics in a consistent fashion across all study areas. Data analyses and planning. A number of activities were conducted over the project period: 1) evaluated metrics for characterizing socioeconomic status at the ZIP code level among the five study areas; 2) examined study design issues for comparing epidemiologic results among the five cities (e.g., temporal and spatial extent of available data) and progression of analyses; 3) continued single-city epidemiological analyses for Atlanta and St. Louis, and began epidemiologic analyses for Dallas; 4) continued efforts on application of spatially-refined modeled estimates of ambient concentrations and population exposures in Atlanta epidemiologic analyses; 5) with the Air Quality Core, continued work on applying PM2.5 components data and PM2.5 source apportionment outputs to epidemiologic analyses in St. Louis, comparing results among multiple source apportionment approaches; 6) with the Air Quality and Biostatistics Cores, continued work on methods for detecting and analyzing air pollution mixtures using multi-pollutant monitoring data, including development of a mobile source indicators approach, self-organizing maps, classification and regression trees (C&RT), and assessing multi-pollutant joint effects; 7) began extension of C&RT analyses to the multi-city context (Atlanta, Dallas, and St. Louis); and 8) developed a statistical modeling approach to quantify projection uncertainties in future ambient ozone levels and their health impact due to climate change.

Future Activities:

Over the coming year, we anticipate completing our data processing activities (particularly finalizing the new population-weighted averaging metric and finalizing Birmingham and Pittsburgh health outcome data). Manuscript preparation will begin and/or continue for analyses conducted over the past year. Current manuscripts in preparation include: 1) Joint effects of combinations of ambient air pollutants on pediatric emergency department visits in Atlanta, 1998-2004; 2) Fine particulate matter components and emergency department visits for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases; 3) Impact of organic and elemental carbon measurement methods on associations with acute cardiorespiratory morbidity; 4) A statistical modeling approach for quantifying projection uncertainties in future ambient ozone level and its health impact due to climate change; 5) Profiling environmental mixtures with self-organizing maps: potential for epidemiological research. New and ongoing analyses are also planned, in particular the extension of single-city epidemiologic analyses of Atlanta, Dallas, and St. Louis to the multi-city context, with anticipated focuses on specific cardiorespiratory outcomes; continued extensions of source apportionment, SOMs, and C&RT approaches; and preliminary assessments of effect modification by SES and seasonality/temperature.


Journal Articles on this Report : 19 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 101 publications 43 publications in selected types All 42 journal articles
Other center views: All 334 publications 136 publications in selected types All 132 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Balachandran S, Pachon JE, Hu Y, Lee D, Mulholland JA, Russell AG. Ensemble-trained source apportionment of fine particulate matter and method uncertainty analysis. Atmospheric Environment 2012;61:387-394. R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Baxter LK, Dionisio KL, Burke J, Sarnat SE, Sarnat JA, Hodas N, Rich DQ, Turpin BJ, Jones RR, Mannshardt E, Kumar N, Beevers SD, Ozkaynak H. Exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies: key findings and future recommendations. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2013;23(6):654-659. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Brown MS, Sarnat SE, DeMuth KA, Brown LAS, Whitlock DR, Brown SW, Tolbert PE, Fitzpatrick AM. Residential proximity to a major roadway is associated with features of asthma control in children. PLoS ONE 2012;7(5):e37044 ( pp.). R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Darrow LA, Hess J, Rogers CA, Tolbert PE, Klein M, Sarnat SE. Ambient pollen concentrations and emergency department visits for asthma and wheeze. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2012;130(3):630-638. R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Dionisio KL, Isakov V, Baxter LK, Sarnat JA, Sarnat SE, Burke J, Rosenbaum A, Graham SE, Cook R, Mulholland J, Ozkaynak H. Development and evaluation of alternative approaches for exposure assessment of multiple air pollutants in Atlanta, Georgia. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2013;23(6):581-592. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Flanders WD, Klein M, Darrow LA, Strickland MJ, Sarnat SE, Sarnat JA, Waller LA, Winquist A, Tolbert PE. A method for detection of residual confounding in time-series and other observational studies. Epidemiology 2011;22(1):59-67. R834799 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Flanders WD, Klein M, Darrow LA, Strickland MJ, Sarnat SE, Sarnat JA, Waller LA, Winquist A, Tolbert PE. A method to detect residual confounding in spatial and other observational studies. Epidemiology 2011;22(6):823-826. R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Gass K, Klein M, Chang HH, Flanders WD, Strickland MJ. Classification and regression trees for epidemiologic research: an air pollution example. Environmental Health 2014;13(1):17 (10 pp.). R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Goldman GT, Mulholland JA, Russell AG, Strickland MJ, Klein M, Waller LA, Tolbert PE. Impact of exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology: effect of error type in time-series studies. Environmental Health 2011;10:61 (11 pp.). R834799 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Goldman GT, Mulholland JA, Russell AG, Gass K, Strickland MJ, Tolbert PE. Characterization of ambient air pollution measurement error in a time-series health study using a geostatistical simulation approach. Atmospheric Environment 2012;57:101-108. R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Maier ML, Balachandran S, Sarnat SE, Turner JR, Mulholland JA, Russell AG. Application of an ensemble-trained source apportionment approach at a site impacted by multiple point sources. Environmental Science & Technology 2013;47(8):3743-3751. R834799 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Pachon JE, Balachandran S, Hu Y, Mulholland JA, Darrow LA, Sarnat JA, Tolbert PE, Russell AG. Development of outcome-based, multipollutant mobile source indicators. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2012;62(4):431-442. R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Pachon JE, Weber RJ, Zhang X, Mulholland JA, Russell AG. Revising the use of potassium (K) in the source apportionment of PM2.5. Atmospheric Pollution Research 2013;4(1):14-21. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Pearce JL, Waller LA, Mulholland JA, Sarnat SE, Strickland MJ, Chang HH, Tolbert PE. Exploring associations between multipollutant day types and asthma morbidity: epidemiologic applications of self-organizing map ambient air quality classifications. Environmental Health 2015;14:55 (12 pp.). R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Sarnat JA, Sarnat SE, Flanders WD, Chang HH, Mulholland J, Baxter L, Isakov V, Ozkaynak H. Spatiotemporally resolved air exchange rate as a modifier of acute air pollution-related morbidity in Atlanta. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2013;23(6):606-615. R834799 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Sarnat SE, Sarnat JA, Mulholland J, Isakov V, Ozkaynak H, Chang HH, Klein M, Tolbert PE. Application of alternative spatiotemporal metrics of ambient air pollution exposure in a time-series epidemiological study in Atlanta. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2013;23(6):593-605. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Strickland MJ, Darrow LA, Mulholland JA, Klein M, Flanders WD, Winquist A, Tolbert PE. Implications of different approaches for characterizing ambient air pollutant concentrations within the urban airshed for time-series studies and health benefits analyses. Environmental Health 2011;10:36 (9 pp.). R834799 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Winquist A, Klein M, Tolbert P, Sarnat SE. Power estimation using simulations for air pollution time-series studies. Environmental Health 2012;11:68 (12 pp.). R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Winquist A, Klein M, Tolbert P, Flanders WD, Hess J, Sarnat SE. Comparison of emergency department and hospital admissions data for air pollution time-series studies. Environmental Health 2012;11:70 (14 pp.). R834799 (2012)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    ambient air, health effects, sensitive populations, dose-response, cumulative effects, epidemiology, exposure, air quality modeling, PM2.5, organics, elemental carbon, metals, oxidants, sulfates, source characterization, Health, Scientific Discipline, Health Risk Assessment, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, Environmental Monitoring, particulate matter, children's health, morbidity, ambient air monitoring, climate change, air pollution, susceptibility, ambient particle health effects, airshed modeling, human health risk

    Relevant Websites:

    www.scape.gatech.edu

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2011 Progress Report
  • 2012 Progress Report
  • 2014 Progress Report
  • 2015 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R834799    The Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology: Multiscale Measurements and Modeling of Mixtures

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R834799C001 Development and Deployment of an Instrumentation Suite for Comprehensive Air Quality Characterization Including Aerosol ROS
    R834799C002 Examining In-Vehicle Pollution and Oxidative Stress in a Cohort of Daily Commuters
    R834799C003 Novel Estimates of Pollutant Mixtures and Pediatric Health in Two Birth Cohorts
    R834799C004 A Multi-City Time-Series Study of Pollutant Mixtures and Acute Morbidity