2016 Progress Report: Simulated Roadway Exposure Atmospheres for Laboratory Animal and Human Studies

EPA Grant Number: R834796C002
Subproject: this is subproject number 002 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R834796
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: University of Washington Center for Clean Air Research
Center Director: Vedal, Sverre
Title: Simulated Roadway Exposure Atmospheres for Laboratory Animal and Human Studies
Investigators: McDonald, Jacob D.
Institution: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute
EPA Project Officer: Callan, Richard
Project Period: December 1, 2010 through November 30, 2015 (Extended to November 30, 2017)
Project Period Covered by this Report: August 1, 2015 through July 31,2016
RFA: Clean Air Research Centers (2009) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air

Objective:

Objectives/Hypothesis: Traffic-related emissions are associated with the incidence and progression of acute and chronic cardiovascular sequelae in human population studies; however, the causal components, subsequent chemical transformation of these components, and their associated toxicity on the cardiovascular system have not yet been determined. Project #2 is in progress to develop atmospheres with the primary objective of simulating environments containing key components of roadway emissions and the products of environmental factors that transform them. Previous, current, and future exposures are designed to determine air contaminants (or components) that cause or potentiate the toxicity of roadway emissions or confound interpretations based on roadway proximity alone.
Approach: This project will generate and characterize multiple complex roadway mixtures for subsequent animal and human exposure-related toxicology studies. In Aim 1, we will develop and characterize laboratory-generated exposure atmospheres simulating the key components of near-roadway exposures, including transformed emissions and coexposures. In Aim 2, we will conduct inhalation exposures of laboratory animals (as described in Project 3).
Expected Results: Results from these studies will identify key components, as well as the most potent combinations, of urban roadway and background copollutants that result in toxicological responses in the cardiovascular system of rodents.

Progress Summary:

Over the past year we have focused on continuing to evaluate the endothelial cell and myography assays with Project 3, and to extend additional endpoints to confirm the cardiovascular response of putative pollutants. These results are described in Project 3. Project 2 developed novel atmospheres that continue to evaluate the role of gas-particle interactions and the particle size on the toxicity of inhaled mixtures. This was done by developing novel atmospheres that focus on better understanding the gaseous-particle and size components of motor vehicle exhaust (MVE). Atmospheres included those in the following table:
 
 
PM (μg/m3)
NOx (ppm)
CO (100 ppm)
EXPOSURE
Target
Actual
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Road Dust
300
349
-
-
-
-
Road Dust + MVE
200+100
342
10.2 (2.5)
-
25.6 (8.2)
-
MVE Gases
0
13
28.6 (5.1)
25.6 (6.3)
66.2 (24.4)
58.5 (26.6)
MVE PM
300
328
24.6 (8.0)
4.0 (1.2)
54.6 (9.3)
8.0 (3.1)
Road Dust +
0.33 ppm Ozone
300
344
-
-
-
-
Wood Smoke
300
380
-
-
-
-
MVE (for ApoE-/- mice)
300
349
17.8 (4.8)
-
32.4 (8.2)
-
 
A major emphasis of our work this year was the development of novel atmospheres that investigated the roles of gases and particle transport into the lung/toxicity as a function of particle size. We developed inhalation atmospheres with ultrafine or fine motor vehicle exhaust particles with or without gases. The ultrafine particles were made with fresh motor vehicle (diesel plus gasoline engine) emissions. The gases were removed by a combination of a parallel plate denuder and a catalytic stripper that enabled removal of both volatile and semivolatile gases. The fine particles were created by resuspension of collected motor vehicle exhaust particles. The resuspended particles were combined with gases obtained from a filtered atmosphere. Figures 1 and 2 show the concentrations of particulate matter and gases in the four separate atmospheres. Figure 3 presents the particle size distribution of the atmospheres, illustrating the lack of ultrafine particles in the fine particle group. The fine particle groups showed a size of approximately 1-2 microns. There were no fine particles in the ultrafine particle group. The results of these exposures are provided in the Project 3 summary.
Text Box:  
Figure 1. PM concentration by
 exposure condition
Text Box:  
Figure 2. NO¬x ¬concentration by 
exposure condition
Text Box:  
Figure 3. PM concentration and size distribution

Future Activities:

Complete analyses and publications of recent studies.


Journal Articles on this Report : 4 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 14 publications 5 publications in selected types All 5 journal articles
Other center views: All 187 publications 87 publications in selected types All 86 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Mauderly JL, Kracko D, Brower J, Doyle-Eisele M, McDonald JD, Lund AK, Seilkop SK. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: IV. Vascular effects of repeated inhalation exposure to a mixture of five inorganic gases. Inhalation Toxicology 2014;26(11):691-696. R834796 (2014)
R834796 (2015)
R834796 (Final)
R834796C002 (2015)
R834796C002 (2016)
R834796C002 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article McDonald JD, Chow JC, Peccia J, Liu Y, Chand R, Hidy GM, Mauderly JL. Influence of collection region and site type on the composition of paved road dust. Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health 2013;6(3):615-628. R834796 (2013)
    R834796 (2014)
    R834796 (2015)
    R834796 (Final)
    R834796C002 (2013)
    R834796C002 (2016)
    R834796C002 (Final)
  • Full-text: ReseachGate-Abstract and Full Text-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Oppenheim HA, Lucero J, Guyot A-C, Herbert LM, McDonald JD, Mabondzo A, Lund AK. Exposure to vehicle emissions results in altered blood brain barrier permeability and expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tight junction proteins in mice. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2013;10:62. R834796 (2014)
    R834796 (2015)
    R834796 (Final)
    R834796C002 (2015)
    R834796C002 (2016)
    R834796C002 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: BioMed Central-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: BioMed Central-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: BioMed Central-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Lund AK, Doyle-Eisele M, Lin Y-H, Arashiro M, Surratt JD, Holmes T, Schilling KA, Seinfeld JH, Rohr AC, Knipping EM, McDonald, JD. The Effects of α-Pinene-vs. Toluene-Derived Secondary Organic Aerosol Exposure on the Expression of Markers Associated with Vascular Disease. Inhalation Toxicology. 2013, 25(6):309-324. R834796C002 (2016)
    not available

    Supplemental Keywords:

    Inhalation Toxicology, Diesel, Gasoline Engine, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, Air Quality, air toxics, Health Risk Assessment, Risk Assessments, mobile sources, Biochemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Risk Assessment, ambient air quality, atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter, aerosol particles, air pollutants, motor vehicle emissions, vehicle emissions, air quality models, motor vehicle exhaust, airway disease, bioavailability, air pollution, particle exposure, atmospheric aerosols, ambient particle health effects, vascular dysfunction, cardiotoxicity, atmospheric chemistry, exposure assessment

    Relevant Websites:

    University of Washington Department of Environmental & Occupational Health Sciences Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2011 Progress Report
  • 2012 Progress Report
  • 2013 Progress Report
  • 2014
  • 2015 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R834796    University of Washington Center for Clean Air Research

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R834796C001 Exposure Mapping – Characterization of Gases and Particles for ExposureAssessment in Health Effects and Laboratory Studies
    R834796C002 Simulated Roadway Exposure Atmospheres for Laboratory Animal and Human Studies
    R834796C003 Cardiovascular Consequences of Immune Modification by Traffic-Related Emissions
    R834796C004 Vascular Response to Traffic-Derived Inhalation in Humans
    R834796C005 Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Derived Particles and Gases on Subclinical Measures of Cardiovascular Disease in a Multi-Ethnic Cohort