2013 Progress Report: Longitudinal Effects of Multiple Pollutants on Child Growth, Blood Pressure and Cognition

EPA Grant Number: R834798C004
Subproject: this is subproject number 004 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R834798
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Air Pollution Mixtures: Health Effects across Life Stages
Center Director: Koutrakis, Petros
Title: Longitudinal Effects of Multiple Pollutants on Child Growth, Blood Pressure and Cognition
Investigators: Gold, Diane R. , Oken, Emily , Schwartz, Joel
Current Investigators: Gold, Diane R. , Gillman, Matthew , Oken, Emily , Schwartz, Joel
Institution: Harvard University
EPA Project Officer: Ilacqua, Vito
Project Period: January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 (Extended to December 31, 2016)
Project Period Covered by this Report: January 1, 2013 through December 31,2013
RFA: Clean Air Research Centers (2009) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air

Objective:

The main aim of this project is to determine the health effects of prenatal and postnatal exposures to individual pollutants, sources, and pollutant mixtures on somatic growth, cardiovascular risk (blood pressure, exercise tolerance) and cognition in children. The strength of chronic and acute effects of individual pollutants will vary by source and mixture, as well as the timing of prenatal and postnatal exposures. Increased vulnerability or susceptibility to pollution effects on these adverse health outcomes will also result from socioeconomic disparities, stress and violence, environmental tobacco smoke, and reduced maternal and child omega-3 fatty acid intake measured in the prenatal as well as postnatal periods. Our Advisory Committee recommended including asthma as an outcome, and evaluating genetic variants as sources for susceptibility.

Progress Summary:

We have geocoded the entire longitudinal address history and have used this to link to longitudinal GIS and census data. With these data we have created a longitudinal data set with: 1) estimated spatially and temporally resolved BC and PM2.5; and 2) neighborhood-level SES variables. We are designing approaches to estimate longer term exposure estimates for the significant proportion of families who move between health assessment visits. We have analyzed associations of temporally- and spatiotemporally-resolved short- and long-term averages of individual pollutants with maternal outcomes (glucose tolerance, hypertension in pregnancy); somatic growth, blood pressure, cognition and sleep duration. Maria Harris, a doctoral candidate is using Project Viva data to assess pollution on behavioral as well as cognitive outcomes.

In response to advisory committee requests to include respiratory outcomes, Dr. Rice has completed analyses on prenatal proximity to roadway and respiratory illness incidence, and has begun longitudinal evaluation of associations of pre- and post-natal pollution and weather exposures with acute respiratory illness, asthma onset and asthma morbidity. Also in response to Advisory Committee requests to expand our focus on pollution and asthma morbidity, Dr. Ierodiakonou, a University of Groningen doctoral candidate, has used data from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) trial to evaluate pollution associations with repeated measures of lung function and effect modification by treatment group. In addition, she used hypothesis-free and pathway specific genome-wide level analyses to investigate whether genetic variants modify the long-term effects of carbon monoxide and NO2 on FEV1 in children with asthma.

In Project Viva, we are assessing the relation of measures of socioeconomic status to green space, distance to roadway, sources of air pollution, and levels of air pollution. We apply this work to consideration of individual, family, and neighborhood markers for socioeconomic status and urbanicity as potential confounders or effect modifiers of associations of pollution with Project Viva outcomes. We have begun to use longitudinal exposure and health outcome data to evaluate individual pollutant associations with outcomes up through age 7 in Project Viva. In collaboration with investigators from all projects we have collaborated on definition of pollutant, pollutant component, and weather clusters. We have begun to look at effects of pollution sources and mixtures on Project Viva outcomes.

Our published papers and abstracts present our most outstanding findings. Elevated PM2.5 in the second trimester, cumulative traffic density and closer residential distance to roadway in pregnancy were associated with abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Closer distance to roadway was associated with increased sleep deprivation. Increased BC exposure and urbanicity predicted lower fetal growth; increased traffic density predicted development of adiposity by 6 months of age. Increased residence-level BC levels or closer distance to roadway in pregnancy predicted reduced cognition by age 7, but associations were confounded by SES. Increased temporally- and spatiotemporally-resolved BC and PM2.5 in the last 2 to 90 days of pregnancy predicted higher neonatal blood pressure. Associations were also found between long-term averages of gases (NOX, CO, and O3) and blood pressure, and we are evaluating the extent to which season and trend can account for these associations.

Future Activities:

In Project Viva we will complete and submit additional papers on prenatal individual pollutant exposures and early life outcomes. We will use longitudinal exposure and health outcome data to evaluate individual pollutant associations with repeated measures outcomes up through age 7. In collaboration with investigators from all projects we have collaborated on definition of pollutant, pollutant component, and weather clusters. We will expand investigation of effects of pollution sources and mixtures on Project Viva outcomes. We will continue to assess sources of vulnerability and susceptibility to individual pollutants, pollution sources and mixtures.


Journal Articles on this Report : 6 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 49 publications 33 publications in selected types All 33 journal articles
Other center views: All 328 publications 266 publications in selected types All 266 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Bellavia A, Urch B, Speck M, Brook RD, Scott JA, Albetti B, Behbod B, North M, Valeri L, Bertazzi PA, Silverman F, Gold D, Baccarelli AA. DNA hypomethylation, ambient particulate matter, and increased blood pressure: findings from controlled human exposure experiments. Journal of the American Heart Association 2013;2(3):e000212. R834798 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Bottino CJ, Rifas-Shiman SL, Kleinman KP, Oken E, Redline S, Gold D, Schwartz J, Melly SJ, Koutrakis P, Gillman MW, Taveras EM. The association of urbanicity with infant sleep duration. Health & Place 2012;18(5):1000-1005. R834798 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Gold DR, Mittleman MA. New insights into pollution and the cardiovascular system: 2010 to 2012. Circulation 2013;127(18):1903-1913. R834798 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Link MS, Luttmann-Gibson H, Schwartz J, Mittleman MA, Wessler B, Gold DR, Dockery DW, Laden F. Acute exposure to air pollution triggers atrial fibrillation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2013;62(9):816-825. R834798 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Mostofsky E, Schwartz J, Coull BA, Koutrakis P, Wellenius GA, Suh HH, Gold DR, Mittleman MA. Modeling the association between particle constituents of air pollution and health outcomes. American Journal of Epidemiology 2012;176(4):317-326. R834798 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Zanobetti A, Luttmann-Gibson H, Horton ES, Cohen A, Coull BA, Hoffmann B, Schwartz JD, Mittleman MA, Li Y, Stone PH, de Souza C, Lamparello B, Koutrakis P, Gold DR. Brachial artery responses to ambient pollution, temperature, and humidity in people with type 2 diabetes: a repeated-measures study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2014;122(3):242-248. R834798 (2013)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    Scientific Discipline, Air, air toxics, Health Risk Assessment, Air Pollution Effects, Biochemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Biology, ambient air quality, children's health, complex mixtures, health effects, sensitive populations, air pollutants, biological sensitivities, exposure and effects, lung epithelial cells, susceptible populations, chemical composition, neurotoxicity, human exposure, toxicity, coronary artery disease, cardiopulmonary, cardiotoxicity, environmental effects, human health, mortality

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
    2010 Progress Report
    2011 Progress Report
    2012 Progress Report
    2014 Progress Report
    Final Report


    Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R834798    Air Pollution Mixtures: Health Effects across Life Stages

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R834798C001 Relative Toxicity of Air Pollution Mixtures
    R834798C002 Cognitive Decline, Cardiovascular Changes, and Biological Aging in Response to Air Pollution
    R834798C003 Identifying the Cognitive and Vascular Effects of Air Pollution Sources and Mixtures in the Framingharn Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts
    R834798C004 Longitudinal Effects of Multiple Pollutants on Child Growth, Blood Pressure and Cognition
    R834798C005 A National Study to Assess Susceptibility, Vulnerability, and Effect Modification of Air Pollution Health Risks