2012 Progress Report: Longitudinal Effects of Multiple Pollutants on Child Growth, Blood Pressure and Cognition

EPA Grant Number: R834798C004
Subproject: this is subproject number 004 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R834798
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Air Pollution Mixtures: Health Effects across Life Stages
Center Director: Koutrakis, Petros
Title: Longitudinal Effects of Multiple Pollutants on Child Growth, Blood Pressure and Cognition
Investigators: Gold, Diane R. , Gillman, Matthew , Oken, Emily , Schwartz, Joel
Institution: Harvard University
EPA Project Officer: Ilacqua, Vito
Project Period: January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 (Extended to December 31, 2016)
Project Period Covered by this Report: August 1, 2011 through July 31,2012
RFA: Clean Air Research Centers (2009) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air

Objective:

The main aim of this project is to determine the health effects of prenatal and postnatal exposures to individual pollutants, sources, and pollutant mixtures on somatic growth, cardiovascular risk (blood pressure, exercise tolerance) and cognition in children. The strength of chronic and acute effects of individual pollutants will vary by source and mixture, as well as the timing of prenatal and postnatal exposures. Increased vulnerability or susceptibility to pollution effects on these adverse health outcomes also will result from socioeconomic disparities, stress and violence, environmental tobacco smoke, and reduced maternal and child omega-3 fatty acid intake measured in the prenatal as well as postnatal periods.

Progress Summary:

We have geocoded the entire longitudinal address history and have used this to link to longitudinal GIS and census data. With these data, we have created a longitudinal data set with: 1) estimated spatially and temporally resolved black carbon (BC) and PM2.5; and 2) neighborhood-level socioeconomica status (SES) variables. While addresses before and after birth are known and geocoded, for the purpose of improving estimation of birth outcome health data, the address at birth currently is being verified and geocoded. We have performed initial analyses of the associations of measured and estimated individual pollution and traffic exposures (temporally or spatially and temporally resolved) with the following outcomes: maternal (glucose tolerance, hypertension in pregnancy); birth weight and longitudinal development of adiposity; blood pressure (birth, 6 months, 3 years, 7 years); cognition; respiratory illness in early life; sleep duration; and markers of inflammation. We have evaluated whether socioeconomic exposures confound or modify the relation of pollution to these exposures. We have expanded our research team to include many senior and junior investigators from Harvard Pilgrim; the Department of Population Medicine’s Obesity Prevention Program; Boston Children’s Hospital; Beth Israel Deaconness Medical Center; Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital; the Brigham and Women’s Hospital; and the University of Utrecht in The Netherlands. In the coming year, in addition to completing analyses and papers on the relation of pre-birth and postnatal distance to roadway, BC, and PM on our many health outcomes, we will begin to: 1) evaluate effects of pollution sources and mixtures; 2) extend our evaluation of effect modification by family and neighborhood SES, and evaluate modification by nutrition and genes and; 3) conduct pathway analyses incorporating multiple outcomes and exposures.

Our most outstanding findings were highlighted in nine posters presented at our external advisory committee meeting. Elevated traffic exposures in pregnancy predict abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Closer distance to roadway was associated with increased sleep deprivation. Increased black carbon and urbanicity predicted lower fetal growth; increased traffic density predicted development of adiposity by 6 months of age. Increased residence-level black carbon levels or closer distance to roadway in pregnancy predicted reduced cognition by age 7, but associations were confounded by SES. Increased black carbon in the last month of pregnancy predicted higher neonatal blood pressure, but increased ozone in that period predicted lower neonatal blood pressure.

Future Activities:

In the coming year, in addition to completing analyses and papers on the relation of pre-birth and postnatal distance to roadway, BC, and PM on our many health outcomes, we will: 1) begin to evaluate effects of pollution sources and mixtures; 2) extend our evaluation of effect modification by family and neighborhood SES, and begin evaluation of modification by nutrition and genes; and 3) begin pathway analyses incorporating multiple outcomes and exposures.


Journal Articles on this Report : 2 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 49 publications 33 publications in selected types All 33 journal articles
Other center views: All 359 publications 297 publications in selected types All 297 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Hoffmann B, Luttmann-Gibson H, Cohen A, Zanobetti A, de Souza C, Foley C, Suh HH, Coull BA, Schwartz J, Mittleman M, Stone P, Horton E, Gold DR. Opposing effects of particle pollution, ozone, and ambient temperature on arterial blood pressure. Environmental Health Perspectives 2012;120(2):241-246. R834798 (2012)
R834798 (2013)
R834798 (2014)
R834798 (2015)
R834798 (Final)
R834798C001 (2014)
R834798C002 (Final)
R834798C004 (2012)
R834798C004 (2014)
R834798C004 (Final)
R832416 (Final)
R832416C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Sivagangabalan G, Spears D, Masse S, Urch B, Brook RD, Silverman F, Gold DR, Lukic KZ, Speck M, Kusha M, Farid T, Poku K, Shi E, Floras J, Nanthakumar K. The effect of air pollution on spatial dispersion of myocardial repolarization in healthy human volunteers. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2011;57(2):198-206. R834798 (2012)
    R834798 (2014)
    R834798 (Final)
    R834798C002 (2014)
    R834798C002 (Final)
    R834798C004 (2012)
    R834798C004 (2014)
    R834798C004 (Final)
    R832416 (Final)
    R832416C002 (2010)
    R832416C002 (Final)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    Air pollution, child health, pregnancy, growth, blood pressure, cognition, inflammation, environmental justice, vulnerability, susceptibility, Scientific Discipline, Air, air toxics, Health Risk Assessment, Air Pollution Effects, Biochemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Biology, ambient air quality, children's health, complex mixtures, health effects, sensitive populations, air pollutants, biological sensitivities, exposure and effects, lung epithelial cells, susceptible populations, chemical composition, neurotoxicity, human exposure, toxicity, coronary artery disease, cardiopulmonary, cardiotoxicity, environmental effects, human health, mortality

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/clarc/ Exit EPA Disclaimer

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
    2010 Progress Report
    2011 Progress Report
    2013 Progress Report
    2014 Progress Report
    Final Report


    Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R834798    Air Pollution Mixtures: Health Effects across Life Stages

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R834798C001 Relative Toxicity of Air Pollution Mixtures
    R834798C002 Cognitive Decline, Cardiovascular Changes, and Biological Aging in Response to Air Pollution
    R834798C003 Identifying the Cognitive and Vascular Effects of Air Pollution Sources and Mixtures in the Framingharn Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts
    R834798C004 Longitudinal Effects of Multiple Pollutants on Child Growth, Blood Pressure and Cognition
    R834798C005 A National Study to Assess Susceptibility, Vulnerability, and Effect Modification of Air Pollution Health Risks