2010 Progress Report: Relative Toxicity of Air Pollution MixturesEPA Grant Number: R834798C001
Subproject: this is subproject number 001 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R834798
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
Center: Air Pollution Mixtures: Health Effects across Life Stages
Center Director: Koutrakis, Petros
Title: Relative Toxicity of Air Pollution Mixtures
Investigators: Godleski, John J. , Koutrakis, Petros
Institution: Harvard University
EPA Project Officer: Ilacqua, Vito
Project Period: January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 (Extended to December 31, 2016)
Project Period Covered by this Report: January 1, 2010 through December 31,2010
RFA: Clean Air Research Centers (2009) RFA Text | Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air
Project 1, an inhalation toxicological animal exposure study, investigates the relative toxicity of different component concentration combinations of air pollution mixtures. These components include both particles and gases that are emitted directly from sources (primary species) or are formed in the atmosphere through a series of reactions that are predominantly photochemical (secondary species). The project uses source specific emissions as well as ambient air or concentrated ambient particulate and our photochemical chamber technologies to generate realistic mixtures. We are testing these specific hypotheses: (i) secondary gaseous pollutants formed from the photochemical oxidation of traffic emissions or Boston ambient gases can induce biological responses; (ii) aging Boston concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) or source specific primary particles in the photochemical chamber enhances their toxicity; (iii) toxicological effects of photochemically aged source emissions, ambient air, or CAPs are exacerbated by co-exposure to ozone and other secondary gases; and (iv) mixture composition and toxicity exhibit inter- and intra-seasonal variability due to changes in source emissions and weather conditions. Toxicity will be assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats by changes in 1) in vivo oxidant response, 2) blood pressure, 3) measures of inflammation, and 4) vascular blood flow/resistance. Three concurrent exposures groups (Sham, Control Exposure and Exposure) will allow us to control for the variability in CAPs composition. With this design, there can always be a direct comparison between two exposure mixtures on every exposure day, making it possible to determine which mixture is more toxic.
During the reporting period, we have completed a group of 8 papers all dealing with primary and secondary emissions from power plant, studies that were funded by the previous Harvard EPA PM Center and the Electric Power Research Institute. These papers have all been accepted for publication and will be published in a special issue of the journal, Inhalation Toxicology. We have also completed similar studies on emissions derived from traffic using a northeastern traffic tunnel as the source of mixed vehicular emissions, and compared the effects of the emissions with or without simulation of atmospheric aging by photochemistry and formation of secondary particles.
We will continue with our investigations as described above. Exposures to fresh and photochemically aged source emissions/CAPs, with and without ozone and other secondary gases, will be conducted. Toxicity of exposures will be assessed in rats using a variety of outcomes, as described above (including changes in vivo chemiluminescence, blood pressure, inflammation, and vascular flow/resistance), to determine the contribution of different components of the exposure mixture to observed biological effects.
Journal Articles on this Report : 1 Displayed | Download in RIS Format
|Other subproject views:||All 36 publications||14 publications in selected types||All 14 journal articles|
|Other center views:||All 410 publications||347 publications in selected types||All 347 journal articles|
||Papapostolou V, Lawrence JE, Diaz EA, Wolfson JM, Ferguson ST, Long MS, Godleski JJ, Koutrakis P. Laboratory evaluation of a prototype photochemical chamber designed to investigate the health effects of fresh and aged vehicular exhaust emissions. Inhalation Toxicology 2011;23(8):495-505.||
Supplemental Keywords:pollution, particles, mixtures, oxidative stress, inflammation, vascular flow, blood pressure, epigenetics, pulmonary inflammation, vehicular emissions, secondary aerosols, Scientific Discipline, Air, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Air Pollution Effects, Biochemistry, Environmental Monitoring, ambient air quality, children's health, complex mixtures, health effects, particulates, sensitive populations, air pollutants, aerosol particles, biological sensitivities, exposure and effects, lung epithelial cells, susceptible populations, chemical composition, neurotoxicity, human exposure, toxicity, coronary artery disease, cardiopulmonary, cardiotoxicity, environmental effects, human health, mortality
Progress and Final Reports:Original Abstract
Main Center Abstract and Reports:R834798 Air Pollution Mixtures: Health Effects across Life Stages
Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
R834798C001 Relative Toxicity of Air Pollution Mixtures
R834798C002 Cognitive Decline, Cardiovascular Changes, and Biological Aging in Response to Air Pollution
R834798C003 Identifying the Cognitive and Vascular Effects of Air Pollution Sources and Mixtures in the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts
R834798C004 Longitudinal Effects of Multiple Pollutants on Child Growth, Blood Pressure and Cognition
R834798C005 A National Study to Assess Susceptibility, Vulnerability, and Effect Modification of Air Pollution Health Risks