2011 Progress Report: University of Washington Center for Clean Air Research (UW CCAR)

EPA Grant Number: R834796
Center: University of Washington Center for Clean Air Research
Center Director: Vedal, Sverre
Title: University of Washington Center for Clean Air Research (UW CCAR)
Investigators: Vedal, Sverre , Sampson, Paul , Sheppard, Lianne (Elizabeth) A. , Szpiro, Adam
Current Investigators: Vedal, Sverre , Campen, Matthew J. , Jobson, Thomas , Kaufman, Joel D. , Larson, Timothy V. , McDonald, Jacob D. , Rosenfeld, Michael , Sampson, Paul , Sheppard, Lianne (Elizabeth) A. , Simpson, Christopher , Szpiro, Adam , VanReken, Timothy M. , Yost, Michael
Institution: University of Washington , Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute , University of New Mexico , Washington State University
EPA Project Officer: Callan, Richard
Project Period: December 1, 2010 through November 30, 2015 (Extended to November 30, 2017)
Project Period Covered by this Report: December 1, 2010 through July 31,2011
Project Amount: $8,000,000
RFA: Clean Air Research Centers (2009) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air

Objective:

Administrative Core

The UW CCAR is focused on the cardiovascular health effects of near-roadway pollution, a complex mixture of particle, vapor and gas phase components that vary by vehicle emission source, road surface, extent of physical aging and the type and degree of atmospheric processing and photochemical reactions. This exposure scenario is not only known to be of considerable health importance, but also serves as a prototypical case for developing research approaches to dealing with multi-pollutant exposure-effect relationships. Our aim is to integrate exposure, epidemiological, toxicological, clinical, and statistical sciences to study cardiovascular hazards of fresh and aged roadway emissions and significantly advance our understanding of the components and reaction products that cause these effects.

The Center consists of five highly integrated research projects and two facility cores (including a Biostatistics Core) that together are pursuing the following six aims:

  1. To characterize real-world near-roadway pollutant concentrations, particle size distributions and chemical composition.
  2. To simulate realistic contrasting near-roadway multi-pollutant exposure atmospheres for laboratory animal and human studies.
  3. To identify cardiovascular and immunologic effects and the pathogenic mechanisms of near-roadway exposures using animal models.
  4. To identify cardiovascular and immunologic effects of near-roadway exposures in human clinical studies.
  5. To identify effects of long-term exposure to traffic-derived particles and gases on sub-clinical measures of cardiovascular disease and DNA methylation in a multi-ethnic population.
  6. To develop a statistical and methodological framework for studying health effects of multi-pollutant mixtures.

Biostatistics Core

The overall objective of the Biostatistics Core is to support the statistical needs of all Center projects. This will be achieved through five specific objectives:

  1. Advise Center projects on data management and compilation. This Core will provide advice on database design, forms design, data entry support, data quality review, data storage, back-up and documentation.
  2. Ensure quality statistical design and analysis of Center research. The Core members meet regularly (weekly); these meetings ensure regular attention to the vast array of (bio)statistical needs of the Center, including: study design, power calculations, data collection, statistical analysis plan development, statistical analysis, and interpretation of results.
  3. Implement novel statistical methods that are required for Center projects. Novel statistical methods are incorporated into Projects 5 and 1 to jointly model and then estimate health effects for mixtures of pollutants.
  4. Identify additional statistical methodological research that will advance Center projects and seek resources to perform such research. The active participation of statisticians in the scientific research of the Center enables identification of innovative statistical methods and approaches to statistical analyses to deal with the most pressing scientific needs of the Center. The Center will catalyze (but not fund) solicitation of resources for new methodological research.
  5. Communicate and disseminate Center findings. This Core will aid in the interpretation of Center findings and use examples from Center research in statistical papers on methodological development and implementation. The Core will also collaborate on manuscripts, foster understanding of statistical methods, and engage statisticians in air pollution research.

Progress Summary:

Administrative Core

Committees and Meetings

  • Investigators Committee – The investigators committee is comprised of key members from all five research projects, as well as representatives from the Biostatistics and Administrative Cores. This group meets approximately every two months for status reports and to discuss the day to day scientific activities of the Center and its individual projects. To date, this committee has met four times, with a fifth meeting scheduled for early August.
  • Internal Steering Committee – The Internal Steering Committee (ISC) is comprised of the Center Director, Deputy Directors, project and core PIs, the Center Quality Assurance Manager (QAM), and the Center Manager. This group meets quarterly to discuss finances, budgets, resource allocation, and collaborations. To date, this committee has met once, with a second meeting scheduled for late August. The ISC also serves as the Cross Collaboration Committee, convening to discuss multi Center and institution collaborative opportunities (see below).
  • Scientific Advisory Committee – The Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) is composed of 10 scientists representing varying specialties and institutions. A list of the committee members and their associated institutions appears in Table 1. The committee is scheduled to convene in Seattle for the first annual “UW CCAR” SAC meeting on September 26th and 27th. All 10 members have confirmed their attendance and are expected to participate and offer constructive advice on the Center’s progress, direction, focus, and future.
Table 1 Expertise Member Institution
Exposure Science Michael Brauer University of British Columbia
Exposure Science Thomas Peters University of Iowa
Exposure Science Barbara Turpin Rutgers University
Epidemiology Arden Pope Brigham Young University
Toxicology Ian Gilmour US EPA
Toxicology Jake Lusis University of California, Los Angeles
Toxicology Sanjay Rajagopalan Ohio State University (Michigan State University CLARC Member)
Statistics Brent Coull Harvard University (Harvard University CLARC Member)
Clinical Studies John Balmes University of California, San Francisco (Chair)
Clinical Studies Nicholas Mills University of Edinburgh, UK

Information Technology

  • The University of Washington’s Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (DEOHS) has established a temporary Center server to create immediate functionality. This server is maintained, secured, and archived by DEOHS IT personnel and has been made password accessible to all Center/project personnel. The server exceeds current demands and is expandable if required.
  • A Structured Query Language (SQL) server will be customized for the Center’s internal and external demands when capacities and data sharing protocols are finalized. Consideration is being given to expanding the current MESA Air server, for a more cost effective infrastructure and ease of access, or designing an entirely separate system for added flexibility. This process should be initiated in the fall of 2011.
  • A website has been created to inform visitors on the UW CCAR and CLARC activities. The site will go live on 8/1/2011, initially with abbreviated content. As time allows, the site and content will be progressively and routinely revised to form a comprehensive internal and external informational tool. The web site displays the new UW CCAR logo.

Collaboration Opportunities

In keeping with the EPA emphasis on multi-Center collaborations, the UW CCAR has been discussing and exploring several potential collaborative ideas:

  1. Emory University/Georgia Tech University – Extend the Project 1 mobile monitoring campaign to include Atlanta, GA, in late summer 2013. This opportunity benefits from field sampling ending in Winston-Salem, NC, around August 20, 2013 and having the instrumentation in close proximity. This additional sampling would generate data to complement both centers by collecting roadway measurements of analytes that were not originally planned by each center alone.
  2. Harvard University – Bring the LRRI group together with the Harvard group involved in the irradiation chamber to initially exchange information with consideration for designing a project of value to both centers.
  3. Michigan State University (with Ohio State component) – Initially exchange information on toxicology study protocols and animal models in order to design a study that integrates well with both center aims.

Biostatistics Core

The primary activities to date of the Biostatistics Core have fallen in three areas: participation in overall UW CCAR and CLARC start-up activities, supporting the design of the mobile monitoring research being conducted by Project 1, and advancing statistical methodological research.

Overall CCAR and CLARC Start-up Activities

Dr. Sheppard attended the February kick-off meeting and co-led (with Brent Coull of Harvard) the break-out session “Statistical Challenges in Analyzing Multipollutant Studies.” This meeting provided useful perspective on the work of all of the new Centers and of the opportunities for future collaborations. The statistical break-out session discussed a number of diverse topics and suggested as recommendations:  (1) convening a workshop on statistical challenges in multipollutant exposures, (2) conducting advance planning to ensure comparable statistical approaches across centers, and (3) implementing a project to explore different approaches to dimension reduction in health studies.

Support of Project 1

The monitoring campaigns to be conducted by Project 1 involve two different activities in each of four cities: a mobile monitoring campaign that involves continuous monitoring at a single fixed site coupled with repeated sampling of multiple intersections along three pre-determined routes over 9 days within a 2-week period, and a passive sampling campaign at a fixed number of stationary sites for a 2-week period. Project 1 investigators have met with Biostatistics Core faculty and staff to discuss the objectives and design of their campaigns. The Core recommended significantly increasing the number of locations sampled in the passive campaign; currently, Project 1 is planning to collect at least double the initial 20 samples planned. Follow-up discussions regarding design of the mobile campaign are planned for late summer.

Advancing Methodological Research

We continue to refine our spatio-temporal model for ambient pollution concentrations. This model is comprised of a spatio-temporal mean field and a spatio-temporal variance field. The mean field is made up of a linear combination of temporal basis functions, with spatially varying coefficients estimated from a universal kriging model. Estimation from this model is based on maximum likelihood and can be accomplished using the R package SpatioTemporal that we developed. We have been fitting this model based extensively on NOx, NO2, and PM2.5 data collected in six MESA Air cities under the auspices of the MESA Air study. We are applying this experience to predicting PM component data from these cities collected under the auspices of the HEI-funded NPACT study. We have found that while it is possible to fit this model in settings where there are limited PM component data, the performance statistics suggest it is difficult to predict pollutant concentrations in such data sparse situations.

Future Activities:

Administrative Core

  • Committee Meetings - Investigators Committee, Internal Steering Committee, and the Scientific Advisory Committee meetings are all scheduled for the August-September 2011 period, as well as throughout the next reporting period. Internal Steering Committee discussion will focus on creating, developing, and implementing cross-center collaboration ideas.
  • Quality Management – The Center will follow up with each individual project and associated QAO to develop and archive all relevant SOPs. Additionally, all projects will be responsible for submitting individual QAPPs for a consolidated Center plan.
  • Information Technology – As the amount of data generated across the Center is better defined, server capacity, configuration, access, and cost will be specified and a system purchased and integrated. Additionally, the Center website will be continually revised and updated for calendar events, publications, documents, and other items of interest and information.
  • Human Subjects – The appropriate Human Subjects modifications and approvals will be pursued for the research interests of Project 1 and Project 5 as soon as the sampling design is finalized.
  • Finances - Internal and external documentation will be reinforced, providing structured financial controls with the subawards. As increased spending occurs, emphasis will be placed on more frequent contact with the project financial personnel.

Biostatistics Core

  • Finalize the hiring of a postdoctoral fellow to support the methodological research program.
  • Review the exposure prediction models, relying on the foundation provided by the spatio-temporal model and assessing whether the multipollutant data collected will support this model.
  • Support Project 1 investigators as pilot data become available and assess whether the sampling plan can be improved further.
  • Continue to support all projects on an as needed basis.

We are actively recruiting for a postdoctoral fellow to support our methodological research program. With this enhanced staffing, we will focus on methods to quantify the health effects of multipollutant mixtures in a cohort study. We will focus on exposure prediction models, relying to the degree possible on the foundation provided by our currently developed spatio-temporal model. We will assess whether the multipollutant data we will be using will be rich enough to support this model or whether alternative approaches will be necessary. For instance, we may consider using a data reduction approach first, e.g., principal components analysis, as initially performed. We will continue Core activities to support all projects on an as needed basis. In the short term, we expect the bulk of our effort will support Project 1 investigators and staff as their pilot data become available. One pilot study activity will assess whether the sampling plan can be improved further.

Individual Research Projects

  • Project 1 – With the instrumentation suite complete, focus will shift to field operations, coordinating with exposure Projects 1, 2, 3, and 5, and characterizing the various exposure chamber atmospheres.
  • Project 2 – Activities will involve continued dose and mixture exposure studies with Project 3, as well as chamber studies defining the physical and chemical transformation processes and atmosphere characterizations.
  • Project 3 – Continued animal exposures and assays associated with the specified aims and refining the exposure conditions with feedback from Projects 1 and 2.
  • Project 4 – Work closely with Projects 2 and 3 to define the experimental protocols in preparation for the scheduled exposures.
  • Project 5 - Work with the CHSCC and the MESA field centers to acquire appropriate Human Subjects approvals for the personal and residential sampling included in this project, as well as finalizing data collection from MESA/MESA Air activities for future Project 5 and Center use.


Journal Articles: 88 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 187 publications 87 publications in selected types All 86 journal articles
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Journal Article Adar SD, D'Souza J, Mendelsohn-Victor K, Jacobs DR, Cushman M, Sheppard L, Thorne PS, Burke GL, Daviglus ML, Szpiro AA, Diez Roux AV, Kaufman JD, Larson TV. Markers of inflammation and coagulation after long-term exposure to coarse particulate matter: a cross-sectional analysis from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Environmental Health Perspectives 2015;123(6):541-548. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Aragon MJ, Chrobak I, Brower J, Roldan L, Fredenburgh LE, McDonald JD, Campen MJ. Inflammatory and vasoactive effects of serum following inhalation of varied complex mixtures. Cardiovascular Toxicology 2016;16(2):163-171. R834796 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Bergen S, Sheppard L, Sampson PD, Kim SY, Richards M, Vedal S, Kaufman JD, Szpiro AA. A national prediction model for PM2.5 component exposures and measurement error-corrected health effect inference. Environmental Health Perspectives 2013;121(9):1017-1025. R834796 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Bergen S, Szpiro AA. Mitigating the impact of measurement error when using penalized regression to model exposure in two-stage air pollution epidemiology studies. Environmental and Ecological Statistics 2015;22(3):601-631. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Bergen S, Sheppard L, Kaufman JD, Szpiro AA. Multipollutant measurement error in air pollution epidemiology studies arising from predicting exposures with penalized regression splines. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C-Applied Statistics 2016;65(5):731-753. R834796 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Brower JB, Doyle-Eisele M, Moeller B, Stirdivant S, McDonald JD, Campen MJ. Metabolomic changes in murine serum following inhalation exposure to gasoline and diesel engine emissions. Inhalation Toxicology 2016;28(5):241-250. R834796 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Campen MJ, Lund A, Rosenfeld M. Mechanisms linking traffic-related air pollution and atherosclerosis. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine 2012;18(2):155-160. R834796 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Campen M, Robertson S, Lund A, Lucero J, McDonald J. Engine exhaust particulate and gas phase contributions to vascular toxicity. Inhalation Toxicology 2014;26(6):353-360. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Chan SH, Van Hee VC, Bergen S, Szpiro AA, DeRoo LA, London SJ, Marshall JD, Kaufman JD, Sandler DP. Long-term air pollution exposure and blood pressure in the Sister Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2015;123(10):951-958. R834796 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Chi GC, Liu Y, MacDonald JW, Barr RG, Donohue KM, Hensley MD, Hou L, McCall CE, Reynolds LM, Siscovick DS, Kaufman JD. Long-term outdoor air pollution and DNA methylation in circulating monocytes: results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Environmental Health 2016;15(1):119 (12 pp.). R834796 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Chi GC, Hajat A, Bird CE, Cullen MR, Griffin BA, Miller KA, Shih RA, Stefanick ML, Vedal S, Whitsel EA, Kaufman JD. Individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status and the association between air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016;124(12):1840-1847. R834796 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Cosselman KE, Krishnan RM, Oron AP, Jansen K, Peretz A, Sullivan JH, Larson TV, Kaufman JD. Blood pressure response to controlled diesel exhaust exposure in human subjects. Hypertension 2012;59(5):943-948. R834796C004 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Cosselman KE, Navas-Acien A, Kaufman JD. Environmental factors in cardiovascular disease. Nature Reviews Cardiology 2015;12(11):627-642. R834796 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Erickson MH, Gueneron M, Jobson BT. Measuring long chain alkanes in diesel engine exhaust by thermal desorption PTR-MS. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 2014;7(1):225-239. R834796 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Erickson MH, Gueneron M, Jobson BT. Measuring long chain alkanes in diesel engine exhaust by thermal desorption PTR-MS. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 2014;7(1):225-239. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Erickson MH, Gueneron M, Jobson BT. Measuring long chain alkanes in diesel engine exhaust by thermal desorption PTR-MS. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 2014;7(1):225-239. R834796 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Erickson MH, Gueneron M, Jobson BT. Measuring long chain alkanes in diesel engine exhaust by thermal desorption PTR-MS. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 2014;7(1):225-239. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Fann N, Kim S-Y, Olives C, Sheppard L. Estimated changes in life expectancy and adult mortality resulting from declining PM2.5 exposures in the contiguous United States:1980-2010. Environmental Health Perspectives 2017;125(9):097003 (8 pp.). R834796 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Fox JR, Cox DP, Drury BE, Gould TR, Kavanagh TJ, Paulsen MH, Sheppard L, Simpson CD, Stewart JA, Larson TV, Kaufman JD. Chemical characterization and in vitro toxicity of diesel exhaust particulate matter generated under varying conditions. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 2015;8(5):507-519. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Galaviz VE, Yost MG, Simpson CD, Camp JE, Paulsen MH, Elder JP, Hoffman L, Flores D, Quintana PJE. Traffic pollutant exposures experienced by pedestrians waiting to enter the U.S. at a major U.S.-Mexico border crossing. Atmospheric Environment 2014;88:362-369. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Galaviz VE, Quintana PJE, Yost MG, Sheppard L, Paulsen MH, Camp JE, Simpson CD. Urinary metabolites of 1-nitropyrene in US-Mexico border residents who frequently cross the San Ysidro Port of Entry. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2017;27(1):84-89. R834796 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Gueneron M, Erickson MH, VanderSchelden GS, Jobson BT. PTR-MS fragmentation patterns of gasoline hydrocarbons. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 2015;379:97-109. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Hazlehurst MF, Spalt EW, Curl CL, Davey ME, Vedal S, Burke GL, Kaufman JD. Integrating data from multiple time-location measurement methods for use in exposure assessment: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2017;27(6):569-574. R834796 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Hazlehurst MF, Spalt EW, Nicholas TP, Curl CL, Davey ME, Burke GL, Watson KE, Vedal S, Kaufman JD. Contribution of the in-vehicle microenvironment to individual ambient-source nitrogen dioxide exposure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2018;28(4):371-380. R834796 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Herring CL, Faiola CL, Massoli P, Sueper D, Erickson MH, McDonald JD, Simpson CD, Yost MG, Jobson BT, VanReken TM. New methodology for quantifying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. Aerosol Science and Technology 2015;49(11):1131-1148. R834796 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Hooper LG, Young MT, Keller JP, Szpiro A, O’Brien K M, Sandler DP, Vedal S, Kaufman J, London S. Ambient air pollution exposure and chronic bronchitis in a cohort of U.S. women. Environmental Health Perspectives 2018;126(2):027005 (9 pp.). R834796 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hudda N, Gould T, Hartin K, Larson TV, Fruin SA. Emissions from an international airport increase particle number concentrations 4-fold at 10 km downwind. Environmental Science & Technology 2014;48(12):6628-6635. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Jandarov RA, Sheppard LA, Sampson PD, Szpiro AA. A novel principal component analysis for spatially misaligned air pollution data. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series C, Applied Statistics 2017,66(1):3-28. R834796 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Keller JP, Olives C, Kim S-Y, Sheppard L, Sampson PD, Szpiro AA, Oron AP, Lindstrom J, Vedal S, Kaufman JD. A unified spatiotemporal modeling approach for predicting concentrations of multiple air pollutants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives 2015;123(4):301-309. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Keller JP, Drton M, Larson T, Kaufman JD, Sandler DP, Szpiro AA. Covariate-adaptive clustering of exposures for air pollution epidemiology cohorts. Annals of Applied Statistics 2017;11(1):93-113. R834796 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Keller JP, Chang HH, Strickland MJ, Szpiro AA. Measurement error correction for predicted spatiotemporal air pollution exposures. Epidemiology 2017;28(3):338-345. R834796 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Keller JP, Chang HH, Strickland MJ, Szpiro AA. Measurement error correction for predicted spatiotemporal air pollution exposures. Epidemiology 2017;28(3):338-345. R834796 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Keller JP, Larson TV, Austin E, Barr RG, Sheppard L, Vedal S, Kaufman JD, Szpiro AA. Pollutant composition modification of the effect of air pollution on progression of coronary artery calcium:the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Environmental Epidemiology 2018;2:e024. R834796 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kim SY, Dutton SJ, Sheppard L, Hannigan MP, Miller SL, Milford JB, Peel JL, Vedal S. Erratum to: The short-term association of selected components of fine particulate matter and mortality in the Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) study. Environmental Health 2016;15(1):85. R834796 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kim S-Y, Dutton SJ, Sheppard L, Hannigan MP, Miller SL, Milford JB, Peel JL, Vedal S. The short-term association of selected components of fine particulate matter and mortality in the Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) study. Environmental Health 2015;14:49 (11 pp.). R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Kim S-Y, Sheppard L, Bergen S, Szpiro AA, Sampson PD, Kaufman JD, Vedal S. Prediction of fine particulate matter chemical components with a spatio-temporal model for the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2016;26(5):520-528. R834796 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Kim S-Y, Olives C, Sheppard L, Sampson PD, Larson TV, Kaufman JD. Historical prediction modeling approach for estimating long-term concentrations of PM2.5 in cohort studies before 1999 implementation of widespread monitoring. Environmental Health Perspectives 2017;125(1):38-46. R834796 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Kim S-Y, Sheppard L, Larson TV, Kaufman JD, Vedal S. Combining PM2.5 component data from multiple sources: data consistency and characteristics relevant to epidemiological analyses of predicted long-term exposures. Environmental Health Perspectives 2015;123(7):651-658. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Larson T, Gould T, Riley EA, Austin E, Fintzi J, Sheppard L, Yost M, Simpson C. Ambient air quality measurements from a continuously moving mobile platform: estimation of area-wide, fuel-based, mobile source emission factors using absolute principal component scores. Atmospheric Environment 2017;152:201-211. R834796 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Lee A, Szpiro A, Kim SY, Sheppard L. Impact of preferential sampling on exposure prediction and health effect inference in the context of air pollution epidemiology. Environmetrics 2015;26(4):255-267. R834796 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Lindstrom J, Szpiro AA, Sampson PD, Oron AP, Richards M, Larson TV, Sheppard L. A flexible spatio-temporal model for air pollution with spatial and spatio-temporal covariates. Environmental and Ecological Statistics 2014;21(3):411-433. R834796 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Lund AK, Doyle-Eisele M, Lin Y-H, Arashiro M, Surratt JD, Holmes T, Schilling KA, Seinfeld JH, Rohr AC, Knipping EM, McDonald, JD. The effects of α-pinene versus toluene-derived secondary organic aerosol exposure on the expression of markers associated with vascular disease. Inhalation Toxicology 2013;25(6):309-324. R834796 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Mauderly JL, Kracko D, Brower J, Doyle-Eisele M, McDonald JD, Lund AK, Seilkop SK. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: IV. Vascular effects of repeated inhalation exposure to a mixture of five inorganic gases. Inhalation Toxicology 2014;26(11):691-696. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article McDonald JD, Chow JC, Peccia J, Liu Y, Chand R, Hidy GM, Mauderly JL. Influence of collection region and site type on the composition of paved road dust. Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health 2013;6(3):615-628. R834796 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Olives C, Sheppard L, Lindstrom J, Sampson PD, Kaufman JD, Szpiro AA. Reduced-rank spatio-temporal modeling of air pollution concentrations in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution. Annals of Applied Statistics 2014;8(4):2509-2537. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Oppenheim HA, Lucero J, Guyot A-C, Herbert LM, McDonald JD, Mabondzo A, Lund AK. Exposure to vehicle emissions results in altered blood brain barrier permeability and expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tight junction proteins in mice. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2013;10:62. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Paffett ML, Zychowski KE, Sheppard L, Robertson S, Weaver JM, Lucas SN, Campen MJ. Ozone inhalation impairs coronary artery dilation via intracellular oxidative stress: evidence for serum-borne factors as drivers of systemic toxicity. Toxicological Sciences 2015;146(2):244-253. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Riley EA, Banks L, Fintzi J, Gould TR, Hartin K, Schaal L, Davey M, Sheppard L, Larson T, Yost MG, Simpson CD. Multi-pollutant mobile platform measurements of air pollutants adjacent to a major roadway. Atmospheric Environment 2014;98:492-499. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Riley EA, Gould T, Hartin K, Fruin SA, Simpson CD, Yost MG, Larson T. Ultrafine particle size as a tracer for aircraft turbine emissions. Atmospheric Environment 2016;139:20-29. R834796 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Riley EA, Schaal L, Sasakura M, Crampton R, Gould TR, Hartin K, Sheppard L, Larson T, Simpson CD, Yost MG. Correlations between short-term mobile monitoring and long-term passive sampler measurements of traffic-related air pollution. Atmospheric Environment 2016;132:229-239. R834796 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Robertson S, Colombo ES, Lucas SN, Hall PR, Febbraio M, Paffett ML, Campen MJ. CD36 mediates endothelial dysfunction downstream of circulating factors induced by O3 exposure. Toxicological Sciences 2013;134(2):304-311. R834796 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Sampson PD, Richards M, Szpiro AA, Bergen S, Sheppard L, Larson TV, Kaufman JD. A regionalized national universal kriging model using Partial Least Squares regression for estimating annual PM2.5 concentrations in epidemiology. Atmospheric Environment 2013;75:383-392. R834796 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Schisler JC, Ronnebaum SM, Madden M, Channell M, Campen M, Willis MS. Endothelial inflammatory transcriptional responses to an altered plasma exposome following inhalation of diesel emissions. Inhalation Toxicology 2015;27(5):272-280. R834796 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Sheppard L, Burnett RT, Szpiro AA, Kim S-Y, Jerrett M, Pope III CA, Brunekreef B. Confounding and exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 2012;5(2):203-216. R834796 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Spalt EW, Curl CL, Allen RW, Cohen M, Williams K, Hirsh JA, Adar SD, Kaufman JD. Factors influencing time-location patterns and their impact on estimates of exposure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2016;26(4):341-348. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Spalt EW, Curl CL, Allen RW, Cohen M, Adar SD, Stukovsky KH, Avol E, Castro-Diehl C, Nunn C, Mancera-Cuevas K, Kaufman JD. Time-location patterns of a diverse population of older adults:the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2016;26(4):349-355. R834796 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Sun M, Kaufman JD, Kim S-Y, Larson TV, Gould TR, Polak JF, Budoff MJ, Diez Roux AV, Vedal S. Particulate matter components and subclinical atherosclerosis:common approaches to estimating exposure in a Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cross-sectional study. Environmental Health 2013;12:39. R834796 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Suwannasual U, Lucero J, McDonald JD, Lund AK. Exposure to traffic-generated air pollutants mediates alterations in brain microvascular integrity in wildtype mice on a high-fat diet. Environmental Research 2018;160:449-461. R834796 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Szpiro AA, Sheppard L, Lumley T. Efficient measurement error correction with spatially misaligned data. Biostatistics 2011;12(4):610-623. R834796 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Szpiro AA, Paciorek CJ, Sheppard L. Does more accurate exposure prediction necessarily improve health effect estimates? Epidemiology 2011;22(5):680-685. R834796 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Szpiro AA, Paciorek CJ. Measurement error in two-stage analyses, with application to air pollution epidemiology. Environmetrics 2013;24(8):501-517. R834796 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Szpiro AA, Sheppard L, Adar SD, Kaufman JD. Estimating acute air pollution health effects from cohort study data. Biometrics 2014;70(1):164-174. R834796 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Tessum MW, Larson T, Gould TR, Simpson CD, Yost MG, Vedal S. Mobile and fixed-site measurements to identify spatial distributions of traffic-related pollution sources in Los Angeles. Environmental Science & Technology 2018;52(5):2844-2853. R834796 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Tyler CR, Zychowski KE, Sanchez BN, Rivero V, Lucas S, Herbert G, Liu J, Irshad H, McDonald JD, Bleske BE, Campen MJ. Surface area-dependence of gas-particle interactions influences pulmonary and neuroinflammatory outcomes. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2016;13(1):64 (18 pp.). R834796 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Vedal S, Kaufman JD. What does multi-pollutant air pollution research mean? American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2011;183(1):4-6. R834796 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Wang M, Keller JP, Adar SD, Kim S-Y, Larson TV, Olives C, Sampson PD, Sheppard L, Szpiro AA, Vedal S, Kaufman JD. Development of long-term spatiotemporal models for ambient ozone in six metropolitan regions of the United States: the MESA Air Study. Atmospheric Environment 2015;123(A):79-87. R834796 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Wang M, Brunekreef B, Gehring U, Szpiro A, Hoek G, Beelen R. A new technique for evaluating land-use regression models and their impact on health effect estimates. Epidemiology 2016;27(1):51-56. R834796 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Wang M, Sampson PD, Hu J, Kleeman M, Keller JP, Olives C, Szpiro AA, Vedal S, Kaufman JD. Combining land-use regression and chemical transport modeling in a spatiotemporal geostatistical model for ozone and PM2.5. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(10):5111-5118. R834796 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Weuve J, Kaufman JD, Szpiro AA, Curl C, Puett RC, Beck T, Evans DA, Mendes de Leon CF. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution in relation to progression in physical disability among older adults. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016;124(7):1000-1008. R834796 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Xu W, Riley EA, Austin E, Sasakura M, Schaal L, Gould TR, Hartin K, Simpson CD, Sampson PD, Yost MG, Larson TV, Xiu G, Vedal S. Use of mobile and passive badge air monitoring data for NOx and ozone air pollution spatial exposure prediction models. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2017;27(2):184-192. R834796 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Yin F, Lawal A, Ricks J, Fox JR, Larson T, Navab M, Fogelman AM, Rosenfeld ME, Araujo JA. Diesel exhaust induces systemic lipid peroxidation and development of dysfunctional pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory high-density lipoprotein. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2013;33(6):1153-1161. R834796 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Young MT, Sandler DP, DeRoo LA, Vedal S, Kaufman JD, London SJ. Ambient air pollution exposure and incident adult asthma in a nationwide cohort of U.S. women. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2014;190(8):914-921. R834796 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Zychowski KE, Lucas SN, Sanchez B, Herbert G, Campen MJ. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension augments lung injury and airway reactivity caused by ozone exposure. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2016;305:40-45. R834796 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Chi GC, Hajat A, Bird CE, Cullen MR, Griffin BA, Miller KA, Shih RA, Stefanick ML, Vedal S, Whitsel EA, Kaufman JD. Individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status and the association between air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016; doi:10.1289/EHP199 (Epub ahead of print]. R834796C005 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Herring CL, Faiola CL, Massoli P, Sueper D, Erickson MH, McDonald JD, Simpson CD, Yost MG, Jobson BT, VanReken TM:New Methodology for Quantifying Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Using High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry. Aerosol Science and Technology. 2015, 49(11):1131-1148. R834796C001 (2016)
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    Journal Article Peroxidation and Development of Dysfunctional Pro-Oxidant and Pro-Inflammatory High-Density Lipoprotein. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013, 33(6):1153-61. R834796C003 (2016)
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    Journal Article Galaviz V, Yost M, Simpson C, Camp J, Paulsen M, Elder J, Hoffman L, Flores D, Quintana P:Traffic pollutant exposures experienced by pedestrians waiting to enter the US at a major US–Mexico border crossing. Atmospheric Environment. 2014, 88:362-369. R834796C001 (2016)
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    Journal Article Erickson M, Gueneron M, Jobson B:Measuring long chain alkanes in diesel engine exhaust by thermal desorption PTR-MS. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 2014, 7(1):225-239. R834796C001 (2016)
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    Journal Article Aragon MJ, Chrobak I, Brower J, Roldan L, Fredenburgh LE, McDonald JD, Campen MJ:Inflammatory and Vasoactive Effects of Serum Following Inhalation of Varied Complex Mixtures. Cardiovascular toxicology. 2016, 16(2):163-171. R834796C003 (2016)
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    Journal Article Campen MJ, Lund A, Rosenfeld M:Mechanisms linking traffic-related air pollution and atherosclerosis. Current opinion in pulmonary medicine. 2012, 18(2):155. R834796C003 (2016)
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    Journal Article Hudda N, Gould T, Hartin K, Larson TV, Fruin SA:Emissions from an international airport increase particle number concentrations 4-fold at 10 km downwind. Environmental science & technology. 2014, 48(12):6628-6635. R834796C001 (2016)
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    Journal Article Campen M, Robertson S, Lund A, Lucero J, McDonald J:Engine exhaust particulate and gas phase contributions to vascular toxicity. Inhalation toxicology. 2014, 26(6):353-360. R834796C003 (2016)
    not available
    Journal Article Gueneron M, Erickson MH, VanderSchelden GS, Jobson BT:PTR-MS fragmentation patterns of gasoline hydrocarbons. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 2015, 379:97-109. R834796C001 (2016)
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    Journal Article Paffett ML, Sheppard L, Robertson S, Weaver J, Lucas SN, Campen MJ. Ozone inhalation enhances coronary artery constriction and impairs dilation via superoxide-dependent mechanisms. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2015, In press. R834796C003 (2016)
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    Journal Article Lund AK, Doyle-Eisele M, Lin Y-H, Arashiro M, Surratt JD, Holmes T, Schilling KA, Seinfeld JH, Rohr AC, Knipping EM, McDonald, JD. The Effects of α-Pinene-vs. Toluene-Derived Secondary Organic Aerosol Exposure on the Expression of Markers Associated with Vascular Disease. Inhalation Toxicology. 2013, 25(6):309-324. R834796C002 (2016)
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    Journal Article Schisler J, Campen MJ, Madden M, and Willis MS. Transcriptional Endothelial Biosensor Response to Diesel-Induced Plasma Compositional Changes. Inhalation Toxicology. 2015, 27(5):272–280. R834796C003 (2016)
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    Supplemental Keywords:

    Environmental policy, exposure modeling, epidemiologic inference, health effects, air pollution exposure, atherosclerosis, epidemiology, toxicology, transportation;, Health, Scientific Discipline, Health Risk Assessment, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Atmospheric Sciences, particulate matter, airway disease, bioavailability, air pollution, particle exposure, ambient particle health effects, vascular dysfunction, cardiotoxicity

    Relevant Websites:

    UW Center for Clean Air Research (CCAR) | University of Washington, DEOHS Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2012 Progress Report
  • 2013 Progress Report
  • 2014 Progress Report
  • 2015 Progress Report
  • 2016 Progress Report
  • Final Report
  • Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R834796C001 Exposure Mapping – Characterization of Gases and Particles for ExposureAssessment in Health Effects and Laboratory Studies
    R834796C002 Simulated Roadway Exposure Atmospheres for Laboratory Animal and Human Studies
    R834796C003 Cardiovascular Consequences of Immune Modification by Traffic-Related Emissions
    R834796C004 Vascular Response to Traffic-Derived Inhalation in Humans
    R834796C005 Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Derived Particles and Gases on Subclinical Measures of Cardiovascular Disease in a Multi-Ethnic Cohort