2014 Progress Report: Multi-Scale Assessment of Health Effects of Air Pollution Mixtures Using Novel Measurements and Models

EPA Grant Number: R834799
Center: The Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology: Multiscale Measurements and Modeling of Mixtures
Center Director: Tolbert, Paige
Title: Multi-Scale Assessment of Health Effects of Air Pollution Mixtures Using Novel Measurements and Models
Investigators: Tolbert, Paige , Russell, Armistead G.
Current Investigators: Tolbert, Paige , Barry, Vaughn , Bergin, Michael , Bilonick, Richard , Chang, Howard , Darrow, Lyndsey , Diaz-Sanchez, David , Flanders, Dana , Greenwald, Roby , Guensler, Randy , Hu, Yongtao , Klein, Mitchel , Liu, Yang , Mulholland, James , Nenes, Athanasios , Odman, Mehmet Talat , Russell, Armistead G. , Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt , Sarnat, Jeremy , Strickland, Matthew J , Talbott, Evelynn , Waller, Lance , Weber, Rodney J. , Winquist, Andrea
Institution: Emory University , Georgia Institute of Technology
Current Institution: Emory University , Duke University , Georgia Institute of Technology
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2016
Project Period Covered by this Report: August 1, 2013 through July 31,2014
Project Amount: $7,999,779
RFA: Clean Air Research Centers (2009) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Global Climate Change , Air Quality and Air Toxics , Air

Objective:

This Progress Report covers the work of the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE) from August 1, 2013 – July 31, 2014.  Four Research Projects are supported by three Cores: an Administrative Core, an Air Quality Core and a Biostatistics Core.  Summaries of the research conducted to date, results, and future activities for each Research Project and Research Core are provided below.  More detailed information may be found in the Annual Reports for each Research Project.

The Administrative Core provides overall oversight, coordination, and integration of the Center.  Since initial funding of the Center, the Administrative Core developed a quality management structure, which is detailed in the EPA-approved Quality Management Plan. Functions of the quality management team over the past year are described below under Quality Assurance.  The fourth annual meeting for SCAPE’s 10 member Science Advisory Committee (SAC) is scheduled for November 20-21, 2014, in Atlanta.  Multiple Center-wide and Project-specific meetings have been held throughout the year to ensure that research is coordinated and integrated among Projects and Cores.

Progress Summary:

Project 1: Development and Deployment of an Instrumentation Suite for Comprehensive Air Quality Characterization including Aerosol ROS

Objective: Develop method(s) for measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) online and semi-continuously, acquire instrumentation, and organize measurement program.  Undertake an extensive measurement campaign that will characterize spatial distributions of key air quality parameters to inform the SCAPE modeling and health studies.

Research Conducted and Results Generated:

  1. Completed Project 1 ambient sampling program with a suite of instrumentation at paired sites that included Jefferson Street (JST) and a mobile site (trailer) rotated between rural, near road and roadside sites.  In addition, completed sampling at three out-of-state sites, Centreville, AL; Birmingham, AL; and St. Louis, MO. Each paired measurement was for nominally 1-month sampling periods. Data are archived on an ftp site for use by other SCAPE investigators.
  2. Completed all analyses of collected integrated samples:
    1. VOC Whole Air Samples have been analyzed for suite of VOCs and data have been archived.
    2. All dithiothreitol (DTT) assay analysis on high-volume filters was completed. Analyses protocol included DTT assay on water, water-hydrophilic, methanol, and methanol hydrophilic extracts. Roughly 2,400 DTT analyses were performed.
    3. Developed automated method for analyses of a suite of water-soluble elements (e.g., water-soluble metals), analyzed all high-volume filters (total water-soluble and hydrophilic water-soluble).
    4. Aerosol mass spectrometer deployed at 8 Project 1 sites data have been analyzed, including PMF for organic speciation/tracers.
    5. Analyzed water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), brown carbon (BrC), ions, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) on all high-volume filters.
    6. Completed GC-MS analyses on subset of high-volume filters for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and quinones.
  3. Modified automated DTT analytical system for Ascorbate-depletion Assay (AA) and assessed performance of method.
  4. Participated in CCAR-SCAPE collaborative project, September 2013.
  5. Completed all analyses of DTT activity on Project 2 in-vehicle filters.
  6. Redeployed NO2 instrument at Road-Side site and performed 2-month intercomparison with SEARCH NO2 instrument at JST.
  7. Deployed online elements instrument (Xact 625 Monitoring System, Cooper Environmental Systems) at JST for a 3-month comparison of PM2.5 and PM10 metals to SEARCH filter-based collection method and offline ICPMS analyses.
  8. Data interpretation and work on manuscripts, including the following:
  1. A Semi-automated System for Quantifying the Oxidative Potential of Ambient Particles in Aqueous Extracts Using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay: Results from the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE), T. Fang, et al., Atmos. Meas. Techn. 2014;7:7245-7279.
  2. Reactive Oxygen Species Associated with Water-Soluble PM2.5 in the Southeastern United States - Spatiotemporal Trends and Source Apportionment, Verma, et al., submitted Atmos. Chem. Phys.
  3. Identification of Organic Aerosol Components Contributing to the Particle Associated Reactive Oxygen Species based on Aerosol Mass Spectrometry and DTT Activity, Verma, et al., in progress.
  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Quinones in Fine Aerosols in Atlanta, El-Afifi, et al., in progress.

Project 2: Examining In-Vehicle Pollution and Oxidative Stress in a Cohort of Daily Commuters

Objective: Examine the effects of exposure to particulate mixtures occurring during automobile commuting and within indoor, non-commuting microenvironments and corresponding measures of oxidative stress-mediated response. 

Research Conducted and Results Generated:

  1. Successfully completed field data collection portion of Project 2, which included 120 individual exposure sessions.
  2. Completed data processing for all continuously measured pollutant parameters for main Project 2 commuter study (ACE-2).
  3. Completed data analysis and processing for all filter-based measurements excluding particulate organic species and ions. 
  4. Completed manuscript on effect measure modification of ACE-1 results by asthma control status.  Results indicate that poorly-controlled asthmatics may be more susceptible to acute changes in lung function and pulmonary inflammation from exposures to specific in-vehicle pollutants.  Manuscript is currently in CDC clearance, to be submitted to Epidemiology.
  5. Published initial results from commuter pilot study (ACE-1) on in-vehicle pollutant exposures and acute cardiorespiratory response during highway commuting periods.
  6. Completed preliminary epidemiologic analyses for Project 2 (ACE-2) examining associations between continuously measured pollutants (PM2.5, BC, PAHs, PNC) and corresponding respiratory endpoints.
  7. Completed data processing and analysis of ACE-1 and ACE-2 salivary cortisol samples.  Completed first draft of a manuscript examining relationships between self-perceived stress from commuting and biological measures of response.  
  8. Revised draft manuscript of analysis examining correlations between in-vehicle noise and several particulate pollutants.  Results show strong correlations between noise and indicators of particle number concentration. 
  9. Prepared all available ACE-2 plasma samples for metabolomic analyses to be conducted in summer 2014, by Project 2 co-investigator, D. Jones. 

Project 3: Novel Estimates of Pollutant Mixtures and Pediatric Health in Two Birth Cohorts

Objective: Explore the interplay between certain early life events, characterizations of air pollutant mixtures developed as part of the Center’s Mixtures Characterization Toolkit, and a range of pediatric health outcomes using two large, population-based birth cohorts.

Research Conducted and Results Generated:

  1. Published time-series epidemiological analysis assessing modification of the acute effect of ambient air pollution on pediatric asthma emergency visits across susceptible subpopulations.
  2. Completed the time-series epidemiological analysis of acute effects of ambient air pollution on several different types of respiratory emergency visits among children age 0-4 years (paper in revision). A related manuscript that describes the relationship between emergency visits for bronchiolitis during infancy and subsequent risk of emergency visits for asthma after age five is undergoing peer review. 
  3. Published our method for using classification and regression trees to estimate the joint effects of pollutant mixtures. A second paper that extends this approach to look at acute associations between air pollutants and pediatric asthma emergency visits in three cities is undergoing peer review.
  4. A manuscript for the Atlanta time-series analyses using the Bayesian ensemble source apportionment estimates is undergoing peer review.
  5. A manuscript on our method for the self-organizing maps to identify pollutant mixtures has been accepted. Preliminary epidemiologic analyses using estimates from the self-organizing maps have been performed.
  6. Preliminary results for a Georgia-wide analysis of associations between air pollutants and preterm birth using the fused Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) estimates.
  7. Progress is being made on the Kaiser Permanente analysis of incident asthma. Health data are in house and have been prepared for analysis. Initial work on the Bayesian downscaling of CMAQ estimates is ongoing.
  8. Published satellite-estimated 10-year PM2.5 concentration time series in Georgia.
  9. A manuscript to evaluate the potential of adding satellite-detected fire spots to PM2.5 exposure models in Georgia is undergoing peer review.

Project 4: A Multi-City Time-Series Study of Pollutant Mixtures and Acute Morbidity

Objective: Conduct a multi-city time-series study to clarify the impacts of air quality on acute cardiorespiratory morbidity in five U.S. cities using novel mixture characterization metrics.

Research Conducted and Results Generated:

  1. Conducted database development, including: calculation of daily population-weighted averages and ZIP code level estimates of multiple pollutants by fusion of monitoring and CMAQ modeled data, health outcome data processing for Birmingham and Pittsburgh, and merging of air quality, health, and Census data.
  2. Conducted single- and multi-city epidemiologic analyses of asthma/wheeze and selected cardiovascular ED visits, with a focus on model development, comparison of modeling approaches, assessment of model mis-specification, and assessment of pollutant lag effects.
  3. Continued efforts applying spatially-refined modeled estimates of ambient concentrations and population exposures in Atlanta epidemiologic analyses in collaboration with EPA scientists, with several manuscripts published (Baxter, et al., 2013; Dionisio, et al., 2013, 2014) and preliminary analyses conducted comparing the use of central monitor site, monitoring-based population weighted averages, and CMAQ-fused population weighted averages in epidemiologic models. 
  4. Continued work on methods for detecting and analyzing air pollution mixtures using multi-pollutant monitoring data, including classification and regression trees (C&RT) (Gass, et al., 2014; Gass, et al., submitted), self-organizing maps (Pearce, et al., accepted), joint effects estimation (Winquist, et al., 2014), and a preliminary examination of the effect of ROS on health using retrospectively predicted DTT activity. 
  5. Continued work on examining detailed PM2.5 components data in epidemiologic analyses (Winquist, et al., accepted; Sarnat, et al., submitted).
  6. Continued work on developing a statistical modeling approach to quantify projection uncertainties in future ambient ozone levels and their health impact due to climate change (Chang, et al., 2014).
  7. Assessed potential modifiers of the effects of ambient air pollution on health, including age, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, air exchange rates, and season.

Air Quality Core (Core B)

Objective: Provide SCAPE researchers with the methods and data to comprehensively characterize air pollutants relevant to the four projects and other cores. Project activities are supported by collecting and managing atmospheric data, developing a “Mixture Characterization Toolkit” (MC Toolkit) for further analyses specific to the projects, and providing the expertise and resources to facilitate the application of the various components of the toolkit. Comprehensive characterization of air pollutants is developed by analyses of the detailed chemical and physical measurements conducted by the Center, along with those available from ambient air quality monitoring networks and special field campaigns. Spatial and temporal characterization of the air pollutant mixtures and emission sources are determined by using extended receptor-oriented models, chemical transport models, regression approaches, hybrid methods, and remote sensing applied over multiple scales.

Research Conducted and Results Generated:

  1. EPA’s CMB (Chemical Mass Balance) receptor model was applied to ambient aerosol concentrations observed at various regulatory monitoring sites (CSN, SEARCH, IMPROVE) in Georgia, Tennessee and Florida. The nine source categories considered in our CMB modeling effort are light duty gasoline vehicle, heavy duty diesel vehicle, soil dust, vegetative/wood burning, coal-fired power plants (primary source), ammonium sulfate, ammonium bi-sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and others.
  2. A novel Bayesian ensemble-averaging method was developed to determine source impacts, to apportion sources for long-term dataset and to estimate SA uncertainties as part of Project 4.  The ensemble approach uses three receptor models (CMB-LGO, CMB-MM, PMF) and one chemical transport model (CMAQ).
  3. The OBS-CMAQ data fusion work was completed for Project 3. Temporally and spatially resolved concentrations of five gases and seven PM types were calculated for the continental United States (CONUS) at 36 km, Eastern United States at 12 km and Georgia at 4 km.
  4. The same data fusion methodology was also applied to Atlanta, Birmingham, Dallas-Fort Worth, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis, as part of Project 4. Ambient air quality monitoring data and CMAQ concentration fields for eastern United States at 12 km were fused for the same 12 pollutants.
  5. As part of Project 3, spatially-resolved concentrations fields from mobile sources were generated for Georgia using the emission-based IMSI (Integrated Mobile Source Indicator) model.  IMSI was applied to the 24-hour average concentrations from the 12-km and 4-km OBS-CMAQ fused data.
  6. The CMAQ-DDM (Decoupled Direct Method) model was used to determine the source impact for 40 PM2.5 species from 20 source categories in the 36-km CONUS domain. To reduce impact uncertainties for each source category, the Hybrid Kriging (HK) method was applied to CMAQ-DDM concentration fields using interpolated observations from 189 monitors across CONUS.
  7. In support of Project 3, various air quality metrics are being developed in a 250 m grid covering 15 counties of the Atlanta area: (i) link-based NOx and PM2.5 emissions from the transportation sector, (ii) pollutant concentrations calculated with AERMOD at road level, (iii) IMSI applied to mobile emissions and concentrations.
  8. As part of Project 3, Emory's statistical downscaling model is currently being applied to the 12-km and 4-km CMAQ outputs, SMOKE emissions, link-based mobile emissions and WRF weather outputs in order to predict daily spatially resolved PM2.5 concentrations across northern Georgia and Atlanta urban area.

Biostatistics Core (Core C)

Objective: Provide statistical support to the Center and to the associated Projects.

Research Conducted and Results Generated:

  1. Initiated development of methods addressing causal effect definitions and estimation (in progress, Klein and Flanders).
  2. Developed statistical methods to assess critical exposure and outcome windows in the analyses of ambient air pollution and preterm birth (Chang, Waller, manuscript under revision for Biostatistics, joint work with Project 3).
  3. Expanded methods to estimate ground-level PM2.5 concentrations from remote sensing (MODIS) data via geographically weighted regression (Hu, et al. 2014).
  4. Developed a statistical modeling framework for projecting future ozone levels due to climate change with an emphasis on uncertainty quantification (Chang, et al. 2014, joint work with Project 4, and Cores B and C).
  5. Investigated and quantified impact of exposure measurement errors in time series analysis of air pollution and health (Dionisio, et al., to appear, joint work with Projects 3 and 4). Started a more comprehensive follow-up simulation study (Chang).
  6. Facilitated analyses in CLARC collaborative Project 3 and Project 4. 
  7. Expanded statistical methods for statistical downscaling of pollutant concentrations (Chang, et al., 2014; Reich, et al., to appear, joint work with Project 3, and Cores B and C).
  8. Initiated development of data fusion methods to combine satellite-derived aerosol optical depth and CMAQ outputs (Balachandran, et al., 2013, joint work with Project 3 and Cores B and C).
  9. Developed, applied, and published approaches for the analysis of joint effects of multiple pollutant using classification and regression trees (Gass, et al., 2014) and self-organizing maps (Pearce, et al., in press). Joint work with Projects 3 and 4.
  10. Developed and applied spatiotemporal hurdle models for zero-inflated data. (Neelon, et al., in press, joint work with Core C and Project 4).

Future Activities:

Project 1: Development and Deployment of an Instrumentation Suite for Comprehensive Air Quality Characterization including Aerosol ROS

  1. Finish Ascorbate-depletion (AA) assay method and do AA analysis on all high-volume filters, compare results to metals data and DTT activities already completed, publish results.
  2. Finish collaboration with EPA (Bob Devlin), including analysis of ultrafine, fine and coarse particles via DTT assay, combine with CAPS DTT data already generated and publish results.
  3. Complete all data analysis and publications.
  4. Depending on financial considerations:
    1. Assess the potential of developing an online DTT and AA assay based on PILS technology.
    2. Modify automated DTT/AA analysis system for measurement of both soluble and insoluble aerosols by both assays to quantify the contribution of insoluble BC on ROS.  Test system by comparison of road-side to other sites.

Project 2: Examining In-Vehicle Pollution and Oxidative Stress in a Cohort of Daily Commuters

  1. Complete analyses of all ACE-2 pollutant and health endpoints, including plasma samples using novel HR-MS analyses involving the characterization of metabolomic profiles. 
  2. Complete and submit six draft manuscripts currently in preparation of ACE-1 and initial ACE-2 data.  The manuscripts include analyses of:

                 a. Effect measure modification among asthmatic subjects in ACE-1 (Mirabelli, et al);

                 b. Correlations between noise and in-vehicle particulate pollution in ACE-1 (Ladva, et al);

                 c. Frequency of traffic pollution events and corresponding health response in ACE-2 (Greenwald, et al);

                 d. Associations between salivary cortisol and perceived stress in ACE-1 and ACE-2 (Raysoni, et al);

                 e. Associations between breath and blood MDA in ACE-1 (Golan, et al);

                 f. Associations between exposures and acute respiratory response in ACE-2 (Golan, et al);

      3. Conduct new exposure and epidemiologic analyses of ACE-2 data, including analyses of changes in metabolomic profiles in ACE-2 and epidemiologic associations of in-vehicle mixtures in ACE-2.   

Project 3: Novel Estimates of Pollutant Mixtures and Pediatric Health in Two Birth Cohorts

  1. Ensure all manuscripts currently in the peer review process are published.
  2. Finalize epidemiologic analysis and write manuscript for statewide preterm birth analysis using fused CMAQ estimates.
  3. Finalize epidemiologic analysis and write manuscript for statewide emergency visit analysis using satellite-based PM2.5 estimates and fused CMAQ ozone estimates.
  4. Perform time-series analysis in Atlanta using the mixture estimated from self-organizing maps.
  5. Develop and publish approach for estimating ROS from source apportionment estimates and use these estimates in an epidemiologic time-series study of asthma in Atlanta.
  6. Finalize and publish the approach for the downscaled CMAQ estimates and use these estimates in the Kaiser Permanente birth cohort analysis.

Project 4: A Multi-City Time-Series Study of Pollutant Mixtures and Acute Morbidity

  1. Complete database management activities.
  2. Ensure currently submitted manuscripts are published.
  3. Submit 3-5 manuscripts currently in preparation and planned.
  4. Continue several analyses focused on assessment of mixtures and effect modification in the single- and multi-city context.

Air Quality Core

  1. Apply our OBS-CMAQ data fusion method to the Atlanta metropolitan area using the 4-km CMAQ runs for 2008-2010.
  2. Integrate in all our CMAQ runs new daily fire emissions based on FINN emission inventories developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR).
  3. Apply CMAQ-DDM using 36-km CONUS domain nested with 12-km Eastern United States and 4-km Georgia grids for 2004-2007.
  4. Replace the default on-road mobile emissions in our 4-km CMAQ-DDM runs with the Atlanta Regional Commission mobile emissions for the Atlanta area.
  5. Apply the statistical downscaling model to 4-km CMAQ outputs and ARC mobile emissions to get PM2.5 daily concentrations at 250 m between 2008 and 2010.
  6. Aggregate our downscaling outputs, spatially, based on some geographical boundaries, such as the census tract, and temporally, such as weekly or monthly.

Biostatistics Core

  1. Continued development of statistical methods for downscaling and linking ground-level pollution concentrations between models (e.g., CMAQ), monitoring data, and remote sensing.
  2. Continued development and application of methods to estimate and summarize health effects of simultaneous exposure to multiple pollutants.
  3. Continued development of estimation techniques for causal effects within observational data in  air pollution epidemiology.
  4. Continued collaboration between Clean Air Research Center (CLARC) Biostatistics Cores on methodological development and implementation to address shared challenges.
  5. Continued exploration of the impact of measurement error on estimated health effects.
  6. Continued close collaboration between SCAPE projects and statistical analyses, particularly Projects 3 and 4.


Journal Articles: 132 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 334 publications 136 publications in selected types All 132 journal articles
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Journal Article Abrams JY, Weber RJ, Klein M, Samat SE, Chang HH, Strickland MJ, Verma V, Fang T, Bates JT, Mulholland JA, Russell AG, Tolbert PE. Associations between ambient fine particulate oxidative potential and cardiorespiratory emergency department visits. Environmental Health Perspectives 2017;125(10):107008. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Alhanti BA, Chang HH, Winquist A, Mulholland JA, Darrow LA, Sarnat SE. Ambient air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma: a multi-city assessment of effect modification by age. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2016;26(2):180-188. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Balachandran S, Pachon JE, Hu Y, Lee D, Mulholland JA, Russell AG. Ensemble-trained source apportionment of fine particulate matter and method uncertainty analysis. Atmospheric Environment 2012;61:387-394. R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Balachandran S, Chang HH, Pachon JE, Holmes HA, Mulholland JA, Russell AG. Bayesian-based ensemble source apportionment of PM2.5. Environmental Science & Technology 2013;47(23):13511-13518. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Balachandran S, Pachon JE, Lee S, Oakes MM, Rastogi N, Shi W, Tagaris E, Yan B, Davis A, Zhang X, Weber RJ, Mulholland JA, Bergin MH, Zheng M, Russell AG. Particulate and gas sampling of prescribed fires in South Georgia, USA. Atmospheric Environment 2013;81:125-135. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Bates JT, Weber RJ, Abrams J, Verma V, Fang T, Klein M, Strickland MJ, Sarnat SE, Chang HH, Mulholland JA, Tolbert PE, Russell AG. Reactive oxygen species generation linked to sources of atmospheric particulate matter and cardiorespiratory effects. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(22):13605-13612. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Baxter LK, Dionisio KL, Burke J, Sarnat SE, Sarnat JA, Hodas N, Rich DQ, Turpin BJ, Jones RR, Mannshardt E, Kumar N, Beevers SD, Ozkaynak H. Exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies: key findings and future recommendations. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2013;23(6):654-659. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Bergin MH, Tripathi SN, Jai Devi J, Gupta T, Mckenzie M, Rana KS, Shafer MM, Villalobos AM, Schauer JJ. The discoloration of the Taj Mahal due to particulate carbon and dust deposition. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(2):808-812. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Boyd CM, Sanchez J, Xu L, Eugene AJ, Nah T, Tuet WY, Guzman MI, Ng NL. Secondary organic aerosol formation from the β-pinene+NO3 system: effect of humidity and peroxy radical fate. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2015;15(13):7497-7522. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Brock CA, Wagner NL, Anderson BE, Attwood AR, Beyersdorf A, Campuzano-Jost P, Carlton AG, Day DA, Diskin GS, Gordon TD, Jimenez JL, Lack DA, Liao J, Markovic MZ, Middlebrook AM, Ng NL, Perring AE, Richardson MS, Schwarz JP, Washenfelder RA, Welti A, Xu L, Ziemba LD, Murphy DM. Aerosol optical properties in the southeastern United States in summer--Part 1: Hygroscopic growth. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2016;16(8):4987-5007. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Brown MS, Sarnat SE, DeMuth KA, Brown LAS, Whitlock DR, Brown SW, Tolbert PE, Fitzpatrick AM. Residential proximity to a major roadway is associated with features of asthma control in children. PLoS ONE 2012;7(5):e37044 ( pp.). R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Budisulistiorini SH, Canagaratna MR, Croteau PL, Baumann K, Edgerton ES, Kollman MS, Ng NL, Verma V, Shaw SL, Knipping EM, Worsnop DR, Jayne JT, Weber RJ, Surratt JD. Intercomparison of an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) with ambient fine aerosol measurements in downtown Atlanta, Georgia. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 2014;7(7):1929-1941. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Chang HH, Reich BJ, Miranda ML. A spatial time-to-event approach for estimating associations between air pollution and preterm birth. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society--Series C (Applied Statistics) 2013;62(2):167-179. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Chang HH, Hu X, Liu Y. Calibrating MODIS aerosol optical depth for predicting daily PM2.5 concentrations via statistical downscaling. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2014;24(4):398-404. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Chang HH, Hao H, Sarnat SE. A statistical modeling framework for projecting future ambient ozone and its health impact due to climate change. Atmospheric Environment 2014;89:290-297. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Chang HH, Warren JL, Darrow LA, Reich BJ, Waller LA. Assessment of critical exposure and outcome windows in time-to-event analysis with application to air pollution and preterm birth study. Biostatistics 2015;16(3):509-521. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Chen T, Sarnat SE, Grundstein AJ, Winquist A, Chang HH. Time-series analysis of heat waves and emergency department visits in Atlanta, 1993 to 2012. Environmental Health Perspectives 2017;125(5):057009 (9 pp.). R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Darrow LA, Hess J, Rogers CA, Tolbert PE, Klein M, Sarnat SE. Ambient pollen concentrations and emergency department visits for asthma and wheeze. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2012;130(3):630-638. R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Darrow LA, Klein M, Flanders WD, Mulholland JA, Tolbert PE, Strickland MJ. Air pollution and acute respiratory infections among children 0-4 years: an 18-year time-series study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180(10):968-977. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Dionisio KL, Isakov V, Baxter LK, Sarnat JA, Sarnat SE, Burke J, Rosenbaum A, Graham SE, Cook R, Mulholland J, Ozkaynak H. Development and evaluation of alternative approaches for exposure assessment of multiple air pollutants in Atlanta, Georgia. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2013;23(6):581-592. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Dionisio KL, Baxter LK, Chang HH. An empirical assessment of exposure measurement error and effect attenuation in bipollutant epidemiologic models. Environmental Health Perspectives 2014;122(11):1216-1224. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Fang T, Verma V, Guo H, King LE, Edgerton ES, Weber RJ. A semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of ambient particles in aqueous extracts using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay: results from the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE). Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 2015;8(1):471-482. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Fang T, Guo H, Verma V, Peltier RE, Weber RJ. PM2.5 water-soluble elements in the southeastern United States: automated analytical method development, spatiotemporal distributions, source apportionment, and implications for heath studies. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2015;15(20):11667-11682. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Fang T, Verma V, Bates JT, Abrams J, Klein M, Strickland MJ, Sarnat SE, Chang HH, Mulholland JA, Tolbert PE, Russell AG, Weber RJ. Oxidative potential of ambient water-soluble PM2.5 in the southeastern United States: contrasts in sources and health associations between ascorbic acid (AA) and dithiothreitol (DTT) assays. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2016;16(6):3865-3879. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Fang T, Zeng L, Gao D, Verma V, Stefaniak AB, Weber RJ. Ambient size distributions and lung deposition of aerosol dithiothreitol-measured oxidative potential: Contrast between soluble and insoluble particles. Environmental Science & Technology 2017;51(12):6802-6811. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Fang T, Guo H, Zeng L, Verma V, Nenes A, Weber RJ. Highly acidic ambient particles, soluble metals, and oxidative potential: A link between sulfate and aerosol toxicity. Environmental Science & Technology 2017;51(5):2611-2620. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Flanders WD, Klein M, Darrow LA, Strickland MJ, Sarnat SE, Sarnat JA, Waller LA, Winquist A, Tolbert PE. A method for detection of residual confounding in time-series and other observational studies. Epidemiology 2011;22(1):59-67. R834799 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Flanders WD, Klein M, Darrow LA, Strickland MJ, Sarnat SE, Sarnat JA, Waller LA, Winquist A, Tolbert PE. A method to detect residual confounding in spatial and other observational studies. Epidemiology 2011;22(6):823-826. R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Flanders WD, Klein M. A general, multivariate definition of causal effects in epidemiology. Epidemiology 2015;26(4):481-489. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Flanders WD, Klein M. Rejoinder. Epidemiology 2015;26(4):496-497. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Flanders WD, Klein M, Mirabelli MC. Conditions for valid estimation of causal effects on prevalence in cross-sectional and other studies. Annals of Epidemiology 2016;26(6):389-394.e2. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Flanders WD, Strickland MJ, Klein M. A new method for partial correction of residual confounding in time-series and other observational studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 2017;185(10):941-949. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Friberg MD, Zhai X, Holmes HA, Chang HH, Strickland MJ, Sarnat SE, Tolbert PE, Russell AG, Mulholland JA. Method for fusing observational data and chemical transport model simulations to estimate spatiotemporally resolved ambient air pollution. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(7):3695-3705. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Friberg MD, Kahn RA, Holmes HA, Chang HH, Sarnat SE, Tolbert PE, Russell AG, Mulholland JA. Daily ambient air pollution metrics for five cities: evaluation of data-fusion-based estimates and uncertainties. Atmospheric Environment 2017;158:36-50. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Gao D, Fang T, Verma V, Zeng L, Weber RJ. A method for measuring total aerosol oxidative potential (OP) with the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay and comparisons between an urban and roadside site of water-soluble and total OP. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 2017;10(8):2821-2835. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gass K, Klein M, Chang HH, Flanders WD, Strickland MJ. Classification and regression trees for epidemiologic research: an air pollution example. Environmental Health 2014;13(1):17 (10 pp.). R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Gass K, Balachandran S, Chang HH, Russell AG, Strickland MJ. Ensemble-based source apportionment of fine particulate matter and emergency department visits for pediatric asthma. American Journal of Epidemiology 2015;181(7):504-512. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Gass K, Klein M, Sarnat SE, Winquist A, Darrow LA, Flanders WD, Chang HH, Mulholland JA, Tolbert PE, Strickland MJ. Associations between ambient air pollutant mixtures and pediatric asthma emergency department visits in three cities: a classification and regression tree approach. Environmental Health 2015;14:58 (14 pp.). R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Golan R, Ladva C, Greenwald R, Krall JR, Raysoni AU, Kewada P, Winquist A, Flanders WD, Liang D-H, Sarnat JA. Acute pulmonary and inflammatory response in young adults following a scripted car commute. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 2018;11(2):123-136. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Goldman GT, Mulholland JA, Russell AG, Strickland MJ, Klein M, Waller LA, Tolbert PE. Impact of exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology: effect of error type in time-series studies. Environmental Health 2011;10:61 (11 pp.). R834799 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Goldman GT, Mulholland JA, Russell AG, Gass K, Strickland MJ, Tolbert PE. Characterization of ambient air pollution measurement error in a time-series health study using a geostatistical simulation approach. Atmospheric Environment 2012;57:101-108. R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Greenwald R, Bergin MH, Yip F, Boehmer T, Kewada P, Shafer MM, Schauer JJ, Sarnat JA. On-roadway in-cabin exposure to particulate matter: measurement results using both continuous and time-integrated sampling approaches. Aerosol Science and Technology 2014;48(6):664-675. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Guo H, Xu L, Bougiatioti A, Cerully KM, Capps SL, Hite Jr. JR, Carlton AG, Lee S-H, Bergin MH, Ng NL, Nenes A, Weber RJ. Fine-particle water and pH in the southeastern United States. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2015;15(9):5211-5228. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Hao H, Chang HH, Holmes HA, Mulholland JA, Klein M, Darrow LA, Strickland MJ. Air pollution and preterm birth in the U.S. state of Georgia (2002-2006): associations with concentrations of 11 ambient air pollutants estimated by combining Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) simulations with stationary monitor measurements. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016;124(6):875-880. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Henneman LRF, Holmes HA, Mulholland JA, Russell AG. Meteorological detrending of primary and secondary pollutant concentrations: Method application and evaluation using long-term (2000–2012) data in Atlanta. Atmospheric Environment 2015;119(Suppl C):201-210. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hu X, Waller LA, Al-Hamdan MZ, Crosson WL, Estes Jr. MG, Estes SM, Quattrochi DA, Sarnat JA, Liu Y. Estimating ground-level PM2.5 concentrations in the southeastern U.S. using geographically weighted regression. Environmental Research 2013;121:1-10. R834799 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Hu X, Waller LA, Lyapustin A, Wang Y, Al-Hamdan MZ, Crosson WL, Estes Jr. MG, Estes SM, Quattrochi DA, Puttaswamy SJ, Liu Y. Estimating ground-level PM2.5 concentrations in the Southeastern United States using MAIAC AOD retrievals and a two-stage model. Remote Sensing of Environment 2014;140:220-232. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Hu X, Waller LA, Lyapustin A, Wang Y, Liu Y. 10-year spatial and temporal trends of PM2.5 concentrations in the southeastern US estimated using high-resolution satellite data. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2014;14(12):6301-6314. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Hu X, Waller LA, Lyapustin A, Wang Y, Liu Y. Improving satellite-driven PM2.5 models with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer fire counts in the southeastern U.S. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2014;119(19):11375-11386. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Hu Y, Balachandran S, Pachon JE, Baek J, Ivey C, Holmes H, Odman MT, Mulholland JA, Russell AG. Fine particulate matter source apportionment using a hybrid chemical transport and receptor model approach. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2014;14(11):5415-5431. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Hu Y, Odman MT, Chang ME, Russell AG. Operational forecasting of source impacts for dynamic air quality management. Atmospheric Environment 2015;116:320-322. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Huang R, Zhai X, Ivey CE, Friberg MD, Hu X, Liu Y, Qian Di, Schwartz J, Mulholland JA, Russel AG. Air pollutant exposure field modeling using air quality model-data fusion methods and comparison with satellite AOD-derived fields: application over North Carolina, USA. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 2018;11(1):11-22. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ivey CE, Holmes HA, Hu YT, Mulholland JA, Russell AG. Development of PM2.5 source impact spatial fields using a hybrid source apportionment air quality model. Geoscientific Model Development 2015;8(7):2153-2165. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Ivey CE, Holmes HA, Hu Y, Mulholland JA, Russell AG. A method for quantifying bias in modeled concentrations and source impacts for secondary particulate matter. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering 2016;10:14. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Ivey C, Holmes H, Shi G, Balachandran S, Hu Y, Russell AG. Development of PM2.5 source profiles using a hybrid chemical transport-receptor modeling approach. Environmental Science & Technology 2017;51(23):13788-13796. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Keller JP, Chang HH, Strickland MJ, Szpiro AA. Measurement error correction for predicted spatiotemporal air pollution exposures. Epidemiology 2017;28(3):338-345. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article King LE, Weber RJ. Development and testing of an online method to measure ambient fine particulate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) based on the 2’,7’-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) assay. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 2013;6(7):1647-1658. R834799 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Krall JR, Chang HH, Sarnat SE, Peng RD, Waller LA. Current methods and challenges for epidemiological studies of the associations between chemical constituents of particulate matter and health. Current Environmental Health Reports 2015;2(4):388-398. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Krall JR, Mulholland JA, Russell AG, Balachandran S, Winquist A, Tolbert PE, Waller LA, Sarnat SE. Associations between source-specific fine particulate matter and emergency department visits for respiratory disease in four U.S. cities. Environmental Health Perspectives 2017;125(1):97-103. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Krall Jenna R, Chandresh N, Ladva Armistead G, Russell Rachel Golan, Xing Peng, Guoliang Shi, Roby Greenwald, Amit U. Raysoni, Lance A. Waller, and Jeremy A. Sarnat. “Source-Specific Pollution Exposure and Associations with Pulmonary Response in the Atlanta Commuters Exposure Studies.” Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 28, no. 4 (June 2018):337–47. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ladva CN, Golan R, Greenwald R, Yu T, Sarnat SE, Flanders WD, Uppal K, Walker DI, Tran V, Liang D, Jones DP, Sarnat JA. Metabolomic profiles of plasma, exhaled breath condensate, and saliva are correlated with potential for air toxics detection. Journal of Breath Research 2017;12(1):016008. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lawson AB. Commentary: Assessment of chance should be central in investigation of cancer clusters. International Journal of Epidemiology 2013;42(2):448-449. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Li W, Xu L, Liu X, Zhang J, Lin Y, Yao X, Gao H, Zhang D, Chen J, Wang W, Harrison RM, Zhang X, Shao L, Fu P, Nenes A, Shi Z. Air pollution–aerosol interactions produce more bioavailable iron for ocean ecosystems. Science Advances 2017;3(3):e1601749 (7 pp.). R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Liang, Donghai, Rachel Golan, Jennifer L. Moutinho, Howard H. Chang, Roby Greenwald, Stefanie E. Sarnat, Armistead G. Russell, and Jeremy A. Sarnat. “Errors Associated with the Use of Roadside Monitoring in the Estimation of Acute Traffic Pollutant-Related Health Effects.” Environmental Research 165 (August 1, 2018):210–19. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Liu J, Bergin M, Guo H, King L, Kotra N, Edgerton E, Weber RJ. Size-resolved measurements of brown carbon in water and methanol extracts and estimates of their contribution to ambient fine-particle light absorption. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2013;13(24):12389-12404. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Liu J, Scheuer E, Dibb J, Ziemba LD, Thornhill KL, Anderson BE, Wisthaler A, Mikoviny T, Devi JJ, Bergin M, Weber RJ. Brown carbon in the continental troposphere. Geophysical Research Letters 2014;41(6):2191-2195. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Lv B, Hu Y, Chang HH, Russell AG, Bai Y. Improving the accuracy of daily PM2.5 distributions derived from the fusion of ground-level measurements with aerosol optical depth observations, a case study in North China. Environmental Science & Technology 2016;50(9):4752-4759. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ma Z, Hu X, Huang L, Bi J, Liu Y. Estimating ground-level PM2.5 in China using satellite remote sensing. Environmental Science & Technology 2014;48(13):7436-7444. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Ma Z, Hu X, Sayer AM, Levy R, Zhang Q, Xue Y, Tong S, Bi J, Huang L, Liu Y. Satellite-based spatiotemporal trends in PM2.5 concentrations: China, 2004-2013. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016;124(2):184-192. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Maier ML, Balachandran S, Sarnat SE, Turner JR, Mulholland JA, Russell AG. Application of an ensemble-trained source apportionment approach at a site impacted by multiple point sources. Environmental Science & Technology 2013;47(8):3743-3751. R834799 (2013)
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  • Journal Article McGuinn LA, Ward-Caviness C, Neas LM, Schneider A, Di Q, Chudnovsky A, Schwartz J, Koutrakis P, Russell AG, Garcia V, Kraus WE, Hauser ER, Cascio W, Diaz-Sanchez D, Devlin RB. Fine particulate matter and cardiovascular disease: comparison of assessment methods for long-term exposure. Environmental Research 2017;159:16-23. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Mirabelli MC, Golan R, Greenwald R, Raysoni AU, Holguin F, Kewada P, Winquist A, Flanders WD, Sarnat JA. Modification of traffic-related respiratory response by asthma control in a population of car commuters. Epidemiology 2015;26(4):546-555. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Neelon B, Chang HH, Ling Q, Hastings NS. Spatiotemporal hurdle models for zero-inflated count data: exploring trends in emergency department visits. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 2014 [Epub ahead of print]. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Neelon B, Chang HH, Ling Q, Hastings NS. Spatiotemporal hurdle models for zero-inflated count data: Exploring trends in emergency department visits. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 2016;25(6):2558-2576. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article O'Lenick CR, Winquist A, Mulholland JA, Friberg MD, Chang HH, Kramer MR, Darrow LA, Sarnat SE. Assessment of neighbourhood-level socioeconomic status as a modifier of air pollution-asthma associations among children in Atlanta. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2017;71(2):129-136. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article O'Lenick CR, Winquist A, Chang HH, Kramer MR, Mulholland JA, Grundstein A, Sarnat SE. Evaluation of individual and area-level factors as modifiers of the association between warm-season temperature and pediatric asthma morbidity in Atlanta, GA. Environmental Research 2017;156:132-144. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article O’Lenick CR, Chang HH, Kramer MR, Winquist A, Mulholland JA, Friberg MD, Sarnat SE. Ozone and childhood respiratory disease in three US cities: evaluation of effect measure modification by neighborhood socioeconomic status using a Bayesian hierarchical approach. Environmental Health 2017;16(1):36 (15 pp.). R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Pachon JE, Balachandran S, Hu Y, Mulholland JA, Darrow LA, Sarnat JA, Tolbert PE, Russell AG. Development of outcome-based, multipollutant mobile source indicators. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2012;62(4):431-442. R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Pachon JE, Weber RJ, Zhang X, Mulholland JA, Russell AG. Revising the use of potassium (K) in the source apportionment of PM2.5. Atmospheric Pollution Research 2013;4(1):14-21. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Park S-K, Russell AG. Regional adjustment of emission strengths via four dimensional data assimilation. Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 2013;49(3):361-374. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Park S-K, Marmur A, Russell AG. Environmental risk assessment: comparison of receptor and air quality models for source apportionment. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 2013;19(5):1385-1403. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Pearce JL, Waller LA, Chang HH, Klein M, Mulholland JA, Sarnat JA, Sarnat SE, Strickland MJ, Tolbert PE. Using self-organizing maps to develop ambient air quality classifications: a time series example. Environmental Health 2014;13:56. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Pearce JL, Waller LA, Mulholland JA, Sarnat SE, Strickland MJ, Chang HH, Tolbert PE. Exploring associations between multipollutant day types and asthma morbidity: epidemiologic applications of self-organizing map ambient air quality classifications. Environmental Health 2015;14:55 (12 pp.). R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Pearce JL, Waller LA, Sarnat SE, Chang HH, Klein M, Mulholland JA, Tolbert PE. Characterizing the spatial distribution of multiple pollutants and populations at risk in Atlanta, Georgia. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology 2016;18:13-23. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Pennington AF, Strickland MJ, Freedle KA, Klein M, Drews-Botsch C, Hansen C, Darrow LA. Evaluating early-life asthma definitions as a marker for subsequent asthma in an electronic medical record setting. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 2016;27(6):591-596. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Pennington AF, Strickland MJ, Klein M, Zhai X, Russell AG, Hansen C, Darrow LA. Measurement error in mobile source air pollution exposure estimates due to residential mobility during pregnancy. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2017;27(5):513-520. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Pennington AF, Strickland MJ, Klein M, Zhai X, Bates JT, Drews-Botsch C, Hansen C, Russell AG, Tolbert PE, Darrow LA. Exposure to mobile source air pollution in early-life and childhood asthma incidence: the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study. Epidemiology 2018;29(1):22-30. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Qin M, Hu Y, Wang X, Vasilakos P, Boyd CM, Xu L, Song Y, Ng NL, Nenes A, Russell AG. Modeling biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation from monoterpene reactions with NO3: a case study of the SOAS campaign using CMAQ. Atmospheric Environment 2018;184:146-155. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Redman JD, Holmes HA, Balachandran S, Maier ML, Zhai X, Ivey C, Digby K, Mulholland JA, Russell AG. Development and evaluation of a daily temporal interpolation model for fine particulate matter species concentrations and source apportionment. Atmospheric Environment 2016;140:529-538. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Reich BJ, Chang HH, Strickland MJ. Spatial health effects analysis with uncertain residential locations. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 2014;23(2):156-168. R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Reich BJ, Chang HH, Foley KM. A spectral method for spatial downscaling. Biometrics 2014;70(4):932-942. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Sarnat JA, Sarnat SE, Flanders WD, Chang HH, Mulholland J, Baxter L, Isakov V, Ozkaynak H. Spatiotemporally resolved air exchange rate as a modifier of acute air pollution-related morbidity in Atlanta. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2013;23(6):606-615. R834799 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Sarnat JA, Golan R, Greenwald R, Raysoni AU, Kewada P, Winquist A, Sarnat SE, Flanders WD, Mirabelli MC, Zora JE, Bergin MH, Yip F. Exposure to traffic pollution, acute inflammation and autonomic response in a panel of car commuters. Environmental Research 2014;133:66-76. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Sarnat SE, Sarnat JA, Mulholland J, Isakov V, Ozkaynak H, Chang HH, Klein M, Tolbert PE. Application of alternative spatiotemporal metrics of ambient air pollution exposure in a time-series epidemiological study in Atlanta. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2013;23(6):593-605. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Sarnat SE, Winquist A, Schauer JJ, Turner JR, Sarnat JA. Fine particulate matter components and emergency department visits for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in the St. Louis, Missouri-Illinois, metropolitan area. Environmental Health Perspectives 2015;123(5):437-444. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Sarnat SE, Chang HH, Weber RJ. Ambient PM2.5 and health: does PM2.5 oxidative potential play a role? American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2016;194(5):530-531. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Shi G, Xu J, Peng X, Xiao Z, Chen K, Tian Y, Guan X, Feng Y, Yu H, Nenes A, Russell AG. pH of aerosols in a polluted atmosphere:source contributions to highly acidic Aerosol. Environmental Science & Technology 2017;51(8):4289-4296. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Shi G, Peng X, Huangfu Y, Wang W, Xu J, Tian Y, Feng Y, Ivey CE, Russell AG. Quantification of source impact to PM using three-dimensional weighted factor model analysis on multi-site data. Atmospheric Environment 2017;160:89-96. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Strickland MJ, Darrow LA, Mulholland JA, Klein M, Flanders WD, Winquist A, Tolbert PE. Implications of different approaches for characterizing ambient air pollutant concentrations within the urban airshed for time-series studies and health benefits analyses. Environmental Health 2011;10:36 (9 pp.). R834799 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Strickland MJ, Marsh CA, Darrow LA. Gestational age-specific associations between infantile acute bronchiolitis and asthma after age five. Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2014;28(6):521-526. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Strickland MJ, Klein M, Flanders WD, Chang HH, Mulholland JA, Tolbert PE, Darrow LA. Modification of the effect of ambient air pollution on pediatric asthma emergency visits: susceptible subpopulations. Epidemiology 2014;25(6):843-850. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Strickland MJ, Gass KM, Goldman GT, Mulholland JA. Effects of ambient air pollution measurement error on health effect estimates in time-series studies: a simulation-based analysis. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2015;25(2):160-166. R834799 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Strickland MJ, Hao H, Hu X, Chang HH, Darrow LA, Liu Y. Pediatric emergency visits and short-term changes in PM2.5 concentrations in the U.S. state of Georgia. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016;124(5):690-696. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Tuet WY, Fok S, Verma V, Tagle Rodriguez MS, Grosberg A, Champion JA, Ng NL. Dose-dependent intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production from particulate matter exposure: comparison to oxidative potential and chemical composition. Atmospheric Environment 2016;144:335-344. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Verma V, Rico-Martinez R, Kotra N, King L, Liu J, Snell TW, Weber RJ. Contribution of water-soluble and insoluble components and their hydrophobic/hydrophilic subfractions to the reactive oxygen species-generating potential of fine ambient aerosols. Environmental Science & Technology 2012;46(20):11384-11392. R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Verma V, Rico-Martinez R, Kotra N, Rennolds C, Liu J, Snell TW, Weber RJ. Estimating the toxicity of ambient fine aerosols using freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta). Environmental Pollution 2013;182:379-384. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Verma V, Fang T, Guo H, King L, Bates JT, Peltier RE, Edgerton E, Russell AG, Weber RJ. Reactive oxygen species associated with water-soluble PM2.5 in the southeastern United States: spatiotemporal trends and source apportionment. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2014;14(23):12915-12930. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Verma V, Fang T, Xu L, Peltier RE, Russell AG, Ng NL, Weber RJ. Organic aerosols associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by water-soluble PM2.5. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(7):4646-4656. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Verma V, Wang Y, El-Afifi R, Fang T, Rowland J, Russell AG, Weber RJ. Fractionating ambient humic-like substances (HULIS) for their reactive oxygen species activity—assessing the importance of quinones and atmospheric aging. Atmospheric Environment 2015;120:351-359. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Vreeland H, Weber R, Bergin M, Greenwald R, Golan R, Russell AG, Verma V, Sarnat JA. Oxidative potential of PM2.5 during Atlanta rush hour: Measurements of in-vehicle dithiothreitol (DTT) activity. Atmospheric Environment 2017;165:169-178. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Waller LA. Commentary: regarding assessments of chance in investigations of ‘cluster series.’ International Journal of Epidemiology 2013;42(2):449-452. R834799 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Weber RJ, Guo H, Russell AG, Nenes A. High aerosol acidity despite declining atmospheric sulfate concentrations over the past 15 years. Nature Geoscience 2016;9:282-285. R834799 (2016)
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    R835410 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Winquist A, Klein M, Tolbert P, Sarnat SE. Power estimation using simulations for air pollution time-series studies. Environmental Health 2012;11:68 (12 pp.). R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Winquist A, Klein M, Tolbert P, Flanders WD, Hess J, Sarnat SE. Comparison of emergency department and hospital admissions data for air pollution time-series studies. Environmental Health 2012;11:70 (14 pp.). R834799 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Winquist A, Kirrane E, Klein M, Strickland M, Darrow LA, Sarnat SE, Gass K, Mulholland J, Russell A, Tolbert P. Joint effects of ambient air pollutants on pediatric asthma emergency department visits in Atlanta, 1998-2004. Epidemiology 2014;25(5):666-673. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Winquist A, Schauer JJ, Turner JR, Klein M, Sarnat SE. Impact of ambient fine particulate matter carbon measurement methods on observed associations with acute cardiorespiratory morbidity. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2015;25(2):215-221. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Winquist A, Grundstein A, Chang HH, Hess J, Sarnat SE. Warm season temperature and emergency department visits in Atlanta, Georgia. Environmental Research 2016;147:314-323. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Xiao Q, Ma Z, Li S, Liu Y. The impact of winter heating on air pollution in China. PLoS One 2015;10(1):e0117311 (11 pp.). R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Xiao Q, Liu Y, Mulholland JA, Russell AG, Darrow LA, Tolbert PE, Strickland MJ. Pediatric emergency department visits and ambient air pollution in the U.S. state of Georgia: a case-crossover study. Environmental Health 2016;15(1):115. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Xu L, Guo H, Boyd CM, Klein M, Bougiatioti A, Cerully KM, Hite JR, Isaacman-VanWertz G, Kreisberg NM, Knote C, Olson K, Koss A, Goldstein AH, Hering SV, de Gouw JA, Baumann K, Lee S-H, Nenes A, Weber RJ, Ng NL. Effects of anthropogenic emissions on aerosol formation from isoprene and monoterpenes in the southeastern United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2015;112(1):37-42. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Xu L, Suresh S, Guo H, Weber RJ, Ng NL. Aerosol characterization over the southeastern United States using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry: spatial and seasonal variation of aerosol composition, sources, and organic nitrates. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2015;15(15):7307-7336. R834799 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Ye D, Klein M, Chang HH, Sarnat JA, Mulholland JA, Edgerton ES, Winquist A, Tolbert PE, Sarnat SE. Estimating acute cardiorespiratory effects of ambient volatile organic compounds. Epidemiology 2017;28(2):197-206. R834799 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Ye D, Klein M, Mulholland JA, Russell AG, Weber R, Edgerton ES, Chang HH, Sarnat JA, Tolbert PE, Sarnat SE. Estimating acute cardiovascular effects of ambient PM2.5 metals. Environmental Health Perspectives 2018;126:027007 (10 pp.). R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Yu C, Di Girolamo L, Chen L, Zhang X, Liu Y. Statistical evaluation of the feasibility of satellite-retrieved cloud parameters as indicators of PM2.5 levels. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2015;25(5):457-466. R834799 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Yu W, Liu Y, Ma Z, Bi J. Improving satellite-based PM2.5 estimates in China using Gaussian processes modeling in a Bayesian hierarchical setting. Scientific Reports 2017;7(1):7048 (9 pp.). R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zhai X, Russell AG, Sampath P, Mulholland JA, Kim B-U, Kim Y, D'Onofrio D. Calibrating R-LINE model results with observational data to develop annual mobile source air pollutant fields at fine spatial resolution: Application in Atlanta. Atmospheric Environment 2016;147:446-457. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zhai X, Mulholland JA, Russell AG, Holmes HA. Spatial and temporal source apportionment of PM2.5 in Georgia, 2002 to 2013. Atmospheric Environment 2017;161:112-121. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zhang T, Gong W, Wang W, Ji Y, Zhu Z, Huang Y. Ground level PM(2.5) estimates over China using satellite-based geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are improved by including NO(2) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2016;13(12):E1215 (12 pp). R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zhang W, Trail MA, Hu Y, Nenes A, Russell AG. Use of high-order sensitivity analysis and reduced-form modeling to quantify uncertainty in particulate matter simulations in the presence of uncertain emissions rates: A case study in Houston. Atmospheric Environment 2015;122:103-113. R834799 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zhang Z, Manjourides J, Cohen T, Hu Y, Jiang Q. Spatial measurement errors in the field of spatial epidemiology. International Journal of Health Geographics 2016;15(1):21 (12 pp.). R834799 (Final)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    Health, Scientific Discipline, Health Risk Assessment, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, children's health, particulate matter, ambient air monitoring, climate change, air pollution, airshed modeling, ambient particle health effects, human health risk

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2011 Progress Report
  • 2012 Progress Report
  • 2013 Progress Report
  • 2015 Progress Report
  • 2016 Progress Report
  • Final Report
  • Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R834799C001 Development and Deployment of an Instrumentation Suite for Comprehensive Air Quality Characterization Including Aerosol ROS
    R834799C002 Examining In-Vehicle Pollution and Oxidative Stress in a Cohort of Daily Commuters
    R834799C003 Novel Estimates of Pollutant Mixtures and Pediatric Health in Two Birth Cohorts
    R834799C004 A Multi-City Time-Series Study of Pollutant Mixtures and Acute Morbidity