Final Report: Community-Based Participatory Research

EPA Grant Number: R834514C001
Subproject: this is subproject number 001 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R834514
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (2010)
Center Director: Faustman, Elaine
Title: Community-Based Participatory Research
Investigators: Faustman, Elaine
Institution: University of Washington
EPA Project Officer: Callan, Richard
Project Period: October 1, 2010 through September 24, 2016
RFA: Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers (with NIEHS) (2009) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Children's Health , Health

Objective:

The specific aims of this project are to:

  • Characterize the seasonal variability of organophosphate  pesticide (OP) exposure across our cohort by sampling at times of peak OP usage and by evaluating OP metabolite profiles across time during these seasons;
  • Assess the influence of gene environment interactions on OP exposure and response profiles; and
  • Calculate the contributions from gene, environment and season to within-person and between-person variability of the urinary OP metabolites in farmworkers to identify quantitatively differences between persons and across seasons.

Secondarily, we will coordinate our cohort and household sampling with agricultural practices and field air monitoring done by our colleagues in the Pesticide Exposure Pathways Research Project. This will measure parent and oxon concentration for three OPs.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

In February 2011 our community health promoters began re-contacting farmworkers and non-farm workers in our cohort (from Years 05 through 09 studies) to participate in the new study. A total of 132 farmworkers and 90 non-farm workers were re-contacted before we were able to reach our recruitment goal of 60 farmworker and 40 non-farmworker households. Data collection began on March 17, 2011.  

Data collection for Season 1 (Pre-Thinning season) was completed in late May 2011, Season 2 (Thinning season) data collection took place June-August 2011, and the final season of data collection (Non-spray season) occurred in November and December of 2011. During Season 2 we asked female participants between 18 and 49 years of age, who were participating in the parent study, if they would be interested in participating in an additional Stress and Cortisol Project. We successfully recruited 27 women. We also coordinated with the Pesticides Exposure Pathways Research group to complete indoor and outdoor air sampling.  

In the spring of 2012, a random selection of 41 participants from the larger CBPR Project were re-contacted to participate in one-on-one interviews to learn more about why they chose to provide biological samples for research and their experience in doing so. We learned that the selected participants have a strong understanding of and desire to contribute to biomedical research. Most participants were eager to participate because of self-described duty to help others and used words like "proud," "satisfied," and "pleasure" when describing their ability to contribute to a cause like this.  

In February 2013, we held two Community Forums (one in English with the Community Advisory Board members and one in Spanish open to the community). During the forums we provided examples of information from this project that would be available for dissemination at a later date. We then queried the audience on the presentation and understandability of the information. The information gathered during these meetings informed the dissemination tools that were used to return individual results to participants in June-July 2015. During this time, all 100 families (60 farm worker and 40 non-farm worker families) were re-contacted and offered a one-on-one meeting with one of our community health promoters to learn about the DMTP levels detected in their urine during the study, as well as more information on pesticides and reducing pesticide exposure at home and in the work place. We were successful in locating and returning results to 92 of the 100 participating adults; eight were lost to follow-up (moved out of the area). The 92 participants who received their results also completed a short survey that will assist us in better understanding the nature of their work environment and potential points of pesticide exposure. The majority of participants who met with a community health worker to discuss their results voiced great appreciation for the results and information provided to them. 

Finally, in March 2016, we held a Community Advisory Board meeting and a dissemination meeting where we invited participants to come and learn about the latest information in Washington State on pesticide exposure. Tito Rodriguez, a CAB member and a member of the Department of Health, spoke about acute exposures and what was being done to track and investigate such exposures. Ofelio Borges of the Department of Agriculture, another CAB member, gave a presentation on the new procedures for training farmworkers to be aware of pesticide exposure and to protect themselves and their families from exposure. We asked the participants of the study to complete a short survey that asked them what they remembered about the feedback they received as well as the protective practices we left with them. We received a total of 35 questionnaires. These data currently are being analyzed.  

Nine months after distributing individual study results of urinary pesticide metabolites, we re-contacted 37 participants (who agreed to future contact) to assess the effectiveness of the dissemination process. An interview survey was used to assess if participants recalled a visit from a health promoter to discuss individual results and assessed their ability to correctly read the graphic created to display results. The survey also measured participants' knowledge on pesticide protective practices, which was discussed during the dissemination of results. Almost all participants (97.3%) recalled a home visit from a health promoter to discuss their pesticide levels; 29 (78.4%) correctly recalled that the health promoter used a thermometer or graphic to explain the results; 26 (70.3%) correctly interpreted graphics showing high and low exposure levels in adults, and 75.7% correctly interpreted results for children. Multiple materials also were distributed with study results and the majority of participants recalled receiving the materials (81% - 92%); reviewed the materials (70%-86%%); referred to the materials with questions regarding pesticides (54%-73%); and shared the materials with family, friends or doctors (62%-65%). Our study results support the use of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to decide how to best depict and disseminate study results. We found that this design was effective in explaining complicated study results to participants who often are left out of the dissemination process.

Conclusions:

Significance

Recruitment and retention efforts were extremely successful in both the parent study and the Stress and Cortisol Project. Of the 100 families in the parent study, we lost only one non-farm worker family in Season 2, due to military service, and two farmworker families in Season 3 because they relocated out of state. Participants were very interested and enthusiastic about receiving individual results and appreciated the one-on-one meeting with the health worker who explained the results and dissemination materials in great deal. They also participated in the dissemination meeting where they learned more about what is being done in the State of Washington to protect workers and their families.

Plans

Data analyses of survey data are ongoing. We continue to meet with our colleagues at the University of Washington to review outcomes and discuss dissemination and manuscript ideas and drafts.


Journal Articles on this Report : 14 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 24 publications 15 publications in selected types All 15 journal articles
Other center views: All 507 publications 224 publications in selected types All 175 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Coronado GD, Vigoren EM, Griffith WC, Faustman EM, Thompson B. Organophosphate pesticide exposure among pome and non-pome farmworkers:a subgroup analysis of a community randomized trial. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2009;51(4):500-509. R834514 (2011)
R834514 (Final)
R834514C001 (Final)
R831709 (2007)
R832733 (Final)
R832734 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Coronado GD, Griffith WC, Vigoren EM, Faustman EM, Thompson B. Where's the dust? Characterizing locations of azinphos-methyl residues in house and vehicle dust among farmworkers with young children. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 2010;7(12):663-671. R834514 (2011)
    R834514 (2012)
    R834514 (2013)
    R834514 (Final)
    R834514C001 (Final)
    R832733 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Coronado GD, Holte S, Vigoren E, Griffith WC, Faustman E, Thompson B. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and residential proximity to nearby fields:evidence for the drift pathway. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2011;53(8):884-891. R834514 (2011)
    R834514 (2012)
    R834514 (2013)
    R834514 (Final)
    R834514C001 (Final)
    R832733 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Abstract: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Coronado GD, Holte SE, Vigoren EM, Griffith WC, Barr DB, Faustman EM, Thompson B. Do workplace and home protective practices protect farm workers? Findings from the "For Healthy Kids" study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012;54(9):1163-1169. R834514 (2013)
    R834514 (Final)
    R834514C001 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Abstract: JOEM-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ResearchGate-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Hohl SD, Gonzalez C, Carosso E, Ibarra G, Thompson B. "I did it for us and I would do it again": perspectives of rural Latinos on providing biospecimens for research. American Journal of Public Health 2014;104(5):911-916. R834514 (Final)
    R834514C001 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Abstract: AJPH-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ResearchGate-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Holme F, Thompson B, Holte S, Vigoren EM, Espinoza N, Ulrich A, Griffith W, Faustman EM. The role of diet in children's exposure to organophosphate pesticides. Environmental Research 2016;147:133-140. R834514 (Final)
    R834514C001 (2015)
    R834514C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Malen R, Knerr S, Delgado F, Fullerton SM, Thompson B. Rural Mexican-Americans’ perceptions of family health history, genetics, and disease risk: implications for disparities-focused research dissemination. Journal of Community Genetics 2016;7(1):91-96. R834514 (Final)
    R834514C001 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ResearchGate-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Plascak JJ, Molina Y, Wu-Georges S, Idris A, Thompson B. Latino residential segregation and self-rated health among Latinos: Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2012-2014. Social Science & Medicine 2016;159:38-47. R834514 (Final)
    R834514C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ResearchGate-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Shepherd-Banigan M, Ulrich A, Thompson B. Macro-activity patterns of farmworker and non-farmworker children living in an agricultural community. Environmental Research 2014;132:176-181. R834514 (Final)
    R834514C001 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Smith MN, Wilder CS, Griffith WC, Workman T, Thompson B, Dills R, Onstad G, Vredevoogd M, Vigoren EM, Faustman EM. Seasonal variation in cortisol biomarkers in Hispanic mothers living in an agricultural region. Biomarkers 2015;20(5):299-305. R834514 (2015)
    R834514 (Final)
    R834514C001 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ResearchGate-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Strong LL, Thompson B, Koepsell TD, Meischke H, Coronado GD. Reducing the take-home pathway of pesticide exposure:behavioral outcomes from the Para Niños Saludables study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2009;51(8):922-933. R834514 (Final)
    R834514C001 (Final)
    R831709 (2007)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Abstract: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Strong LL, Starks HE, Meischke H, Thompson B. Perspectives of mothers in farmworker households on reducing the take-home pathway of pesticide exposure. Health Education & Behavior 2009;36(5):915-929. R834514 (Final)
    R834514C001 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: Sage Journals-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Sage Journals-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ResearchGate-Abstract & Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Thompson B, Griffith WC, Barr DB, Coronado GD, Vigoren EM, Faustman EM. Variability in the take-home pathway: farmworkers and non-farmworkers and their children. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2014;24(5):522-531. R834514 (Final)
    R834514C001 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Abstract: Nature Publishing-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ResearchGate-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Weldon BA, Shubin SP, Smith MN, Workman T, Artemenko A, Griffith WC, Thompson B, Faustman EM. Urinary microRNAs as potential biomarkers of pesticide exposure. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2016;312:19-25. R834514 (Final)
    R834514C001 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, Biochemistry, Children's Health, Environmental Policy, Biology, Risk Assessment, pesticide exposure, community-based intervention, age-related differences, pesticides, children's vulnerablity, biological markers, agricultural community

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2011 Progress Report
  • 2012
  • 2013 Progress Report
  • 2014
  • 2015 Progress Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R834514    University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (2010)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R834514C001 Community-Based Participatory Research
    R834514C002 Pesticide Exposure Pathways
    R834514C003 Molecular Mechanisms
    R834514C004 Genetic Susceptibility