2012 Progress Report: Center for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research (P01) (joint EPA and NIEHS) - CHAMACOS

EPA Grant Number: R834513
Center: Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas - UC Berkeley School of Public Health: CHAMACOS Office, Berkeley, CA
Center Director: Eskenazi, Brenda
Title: Center for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research (P01) (joint EPA and NIEHS) - CHAMACOS
Investigators: Eskenazi, Brenda , Arora, Manish , Barcellos, Lisa , Barlow, Janice , Bradman, Asa , Chevrier, Jonathan , Eisen, Ellen , Harley, Kim , Holland, Nina T. , Jerrett, Michael , Johnson, Caroline , Lustig, Robert , Minkler, Meredith , Molitor, John , Rosas, Lisa Goldman , Salvatore, Alicia L. , Sjodin, Andreas , Smith, Donald , Wallerstein, Nina
Current Investigators: Eskenazi, Brenda , Arora, Manish , Barcellos, Lisa , Barlow, Janice , Blum, Arlene , Bradman, Asa , Crinella, Frank , Eisen, Ellen , Fenster, Laura , Harley, Kim , Harnly, Martha , Holland, Nina T. , Hubbard, Alan , Jerrett, Michael , Johnson, Caroline , Lustig, Robert , McKone, Thomas , Minkler, Meredith , Molitor, John , Rosas, Lisa Goldman , Salvatore, Alicia L. , Sjodin, Andreas , Smith, Donald , Wallerstein, Nina
Institution: University of California - Berkeley , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health , Harvard University , Natividad Medical Foundation , Oregon State University , University of California - Santa Cruz , University of New Mexico - Main Campus , ZERO Breast Cancer
Current Institution: University of California - Berkeley
EPA Project Officer: Louie, Nica
Project Period: August 1, 2009 through July 31, 2014 (Extended to July 31, 2017)
Project Period Covered by this Report: June 1, 2011 through May 31,2012
Project Amount: $3,585,543
RFA: Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers (with NIEHS) (2009) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Children's Health , Health

Objective:

In Project A (R834513C001), we are examining the association of DDT, Mn, and PBDEs with neurodevelopment and onset of puberty in boys in the CHAMACOS cohort. This study directly addresses worldwide concerns that changes in onset of sexual maturation may be related to endocrine disruptors in the environment and fills a large data gap on boys. It also addresses concerns that exposure to DDT/E, PBDEs, and Mn may compromise neurodevelopment.
 
In Project B (R834513C002), we will examine novel methods of examining prenatal exposure to Mn, PBDE, and DDT/E compounds using shed deciduous teeth and GIS methods with remote sensing.
 
In Project C (R834513C003), we are investigating the effects of exposure on the epigenome and its relationship with pubertal onset.
 
The COTC Core (R834513C004) permits Center scientists and community partners to communicate study findings in a culturally appropriate manner, to raise awareness of children’s environmental health within and beyond the Salinas Valley, and to mobilize groups toward actions that will improve the health of low-income Latino residents in Monterey County.

Progress Summary:

Project A (R834513C001)

1. To maintain and expand the CHAMACOS cohort as children begin the critical transition to puberty, assessing neurodevelopment and pubertal development in 300 boys from 9 to 13 years of age.

We completed enrollment of new “CHAM2” participants in August 2011, as anticipated. We have surpassed our goal of maintaining and expanding the cohort to 300 boys. At age 9, we conducted neurodevelopmental assessments on 319 boys (154 original “CHAM1” boys and 165 new “CHAM2” boys) and conducted pubertal assessments on 314 boys (151 CHAM1 and 163 CHAM2). We have completed all of the 9- and 9¾-year visits; 10½, 11¾, and 12 year visits are still underway. The 12-year visit began in March and 21 boys of the expected ~300 have been assessed as of May 25.
 
Retention of the original CHAM1 cohort has exceeded expectations and was a major factor in our ability to exceed our goal of 300 boys at age 9. At 9 years, we saw 96% of the CHAM1 children assessed at age 7. At 10½, we again saw 96% of the children assessed at age 9. Our success has been largely due to one staff member who has been working full time at scheduling and tracking participants and finding those who have moved.
 
2. To determine whether prenatal and childhood exposure to DDT/E, PBDEs, and Mn are associated with neurobehavioral functioning at age 9, 10½, and 12 years.
Collection of neurodevelopmental test data at age 9 is now complete. These data have been entered, are now being cleaned, and preliminary analyses are beginning. We are currently gathering neurodevelopmental data on the boys at 10½ years of age. To date, 230 boys have completed the 10½-year test battery. We expect data collection on this visit to be completed in February 2013.
 
The 12-year visit began in March. This test battery will be similar to the one conducted at age 9, and will assess executive function (Wisconsin Card Sort Task, Balloon Analog Risk Task), memory (memory for designs, story memory tasks), motor skills (finger tapping, pegboard), and social cognition (affect recognition task). We will also gather information on attention problems using a continuous performance test and maternal report using the Conner’s ADHD/DSM-IV Scale. The mothers will report on the child’s executive functioning using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF).
 
Prenatal DDT/E and PBDE concentrations are available for CHAM1 participants. Blood samples collected from CHAM1 and CHAM2 mothers and sons at the 9-year-old visit are currently at CDC and awaiting analysis for DDT/E and PBDEs. Once the maternal 9Y DDT/E and PBDE concentrations are available, we will begin construction of PBPK and statistical models to estimate prenatal DDT/E and PBDE concentrations for the CHAM2 participants.
 
We have encountered some challenges with measurement of prenatal and age 9 measurements of Mn, as mentioned above. Prenatal Mn levels in teeth have been measured for 119 boys, an additional 40 teeth are currently being prepared for analysis, and we continue to collect additional teeth from boys in the study. However, if we are unable to collect 300 analyzable teeth, we would like to include girls in the analysis. Mn in girls’ teeth is already being measured under Project B. As previously mentioned, we have decided not to measure Mn levels in blood at age 9 and are instead preparing to measure Mn in children’s hair samples. Preliminary analyses of the CHAM1 children show increased odds of anxiety among children with higher prenatal p,p’-DDT (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 1,8) and p,p’-DDE (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.5) concentrations. Suggestive associations are also seen with aggression and attention problems. We hope to present these findings at the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology this summer.
 
3. To determine whether prenatal and childhood exposure to DDT/E, PBDEs, and Mn are associated with timing of pubertal development in boys between age 9 and 13 years.
Pubertal assessments at 9 and 9¾ years of age are now complete. Assessments at 10½, 11¾, and 12 years are ongoing. Data entry and data cleaning of the 9 and 9¾ visits is currently underway and preliminary data are available on CHAM1. At 9 years of age, most boys are still pre-pubertal, suggesting that the age range for this study of 9 – 12 years is appropriate to capture onset of puberty for the majority of boys. Only 16 percent of boys were in stage 2 for genital development and less than 3% of boys are in stage 2 for pubic hair development. No boys were in stage 3-5 for either measure.
 
4. To determine whether prenatal and childhood exposure to DDT/E, PBDEs, and Mn are associated with hormone levels in boys at age 12.
Blood sample collection at age 12 for analysis of hormones began in March 2012. We have collected blood samples for hormone measurements from 16 of the 21 boys assessed to date at age 12. Blood samples must be collected before 9 a.m. to minimize diurnal variability in hormone levels. Thus, blood samples lag behind other data collection because they must be collected at a separate home or office visit up to 2 weeks after the main 12-year visit.
 
 
Project B (R834513C002)

Specific Aim 1. To measure Mn, PBDEs, and DDT/E in shed deciduous teeth. (Population: CHAMACOS children participating since birth.)

Manganese: We have successfully developed a method for measuring Mn in human teeth by laser ablation ICP-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP/MS), including analysis of >300 teeth collected from the CHAMACOS cohort. Measurements employing LA/ICP/MS were made at ~20 analysis points spanning the neonatal line for both enamel and dentine tooth regions using 25 μm diameter laser ‘spot sizes’ at measurement intervals of ~200 μm. Prenatal Mn levels in dentine were normally distributed with a mean (standard deviation) area under the curve (AUC) of 0.5 (0.2) ratio of Mn to calcium. There was moderate correlation (ρ = 0.4) between prenatal and postnatal Mn in dentine. The association of Mn loading in house dust collected during the second trimester of pregnancy (μg Mn/m2 floor area) was stronger with 55Mn:43Ca AUC of the second trimester dentine sampling points (rspearman = 0.40; p = 0.0005; n = 72) than with all prenatal sampling points (rspearman = 0.36, p = 0.001, n = 77). We have also compared Mn levels in cord blood and mantle dentine. There was no significant association of 55Mn:43Ca AUC of all prenatal sampling points with cord blood Mn (rspearman = -0.01; p = 0.99). However, 55Mn:43Ca in the sampling point immediately adjacent to the neonatal line in each tooth showed a significant positive correlation with cord blood Mn (rspearman = 0.70; p = 0.003; n = 16). Given the short half-life of Mn in blood (approximately 4 days) and the marked variations in circulating levels during pregnancy, it is likely that only mantle dentine closest to the neonatal line reflects Mn levels in fetal circulation at birth. These findings were published in Environmental Science & Technology (Arora, et al., 2012).
 
PBDEs and DDT/E: Dr. Andreas Sjödin at the CDC in Atlanta attempted to measure PBDEs and DDT in anonymous deciduous teeth collected from patients demographically similar to the CHAMACOS cohort. Using whole tooth digestion, neither PBDEs nor DDT were detected. Additional anonymous deciduous teeth were obtained from a local clinic. Dr. Arora is extracting the dentine from these teeth to determine if more sensitive analyses to measure organochlorine (OC) compounds (i.e., DDT) are feasible.
 
2. To determine the relationship between Mn, PBDE, and DDT/E levels in teeth with other relevant biological measures. (N = 50 children participating since birth.) Mn has been measured in the teeth of 31 participants to date. Additional teeth and appropriate biological samples have been shipped to Dr. Smith at the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC). The laboratory analyses are in progress. Statistical analyses will be conducted when the laboratory measurements are completed. As noted above, Dr. Sjödin was not able to measure PBDEs and DDT in deciduous teeth, but is investigating other methods.
 
3. To quantify the contribution of agricultural pesticide use to Mn levels in house dust, teeth, hair and child blood.
Measurements of Mn (and Pb) have been completed for 330 biological samples, including 202 whole blood samples (maternal, cord, and child’s blood) and 128 urine samples (maternal at 26 wk gestation and child at 24 months). We have developed and validated a methodology for the analyses of hair Mn, including methods for cleaning to remove external contamination, showing that prior published studies of hair Mn were likely contaminated. Measurements of Mn in house dust have been completed for 385 unique residences and 90 repeat samples were collected approximately 9 months later. Among the unique residences, the geometric mean concentration was 150 μg Mn/g dust and the geometric mean loading was 403 μg Mn/m2 floor area. For the 90 homes with repeat measurements of Mn in house dust, the intra-class correlation was 0.6 indicating moderate correlation of Mn concentrations over time.
 
We have linked the GPS coordinates of individual homes to Pesticide Use Reporting data for the Salinas Valley, incorporating data on crop locations, soil type, wind speed and direction. Both dust Mn concentrations and floor dust Mn loadings were significantly higher in homes that were within 1,000 meters of agricultural applications of maneb or mancozeb during the previous 30 days, in homes where farmworkers stored their clothes or shoes inside, in homes that were less clean, and in homes with less educated mothers (p < 0.01).
 
Preliminary analyses of determinants of Mn in teeth suggest that Mn dust loading (μg/g of dust), estimated maternal total dietary intake of Mn (μg/day) during pregnancy, storage of farmworker‘s shoes in the home and agricultural applications of Mn-containing fungicides within 3 km of the mother’s residence during the first trimester of pregnancy were associated with Mn levels in prenatal dentine (p < 0.1). Multivariate regression models explained approximately 17% of the variability in Mn levels. Future analyses will use hierarchical models to test relationships between predictors of exposure and prenatal and postnatal Mn levels in deciduous teeth.
 
4. To identify population correlates of PBDEs and DDT/E exposure in 9-year-old boys. Analyses of CHAMACOS blood samples for PBDEs and DDT/E is currently underway. We anticipate have laboratory results in September 2012 (see below).
 
Other Studies
•DAPS in child urine. We are completing a manuscript examining changes in pesticide excretion during organic food intake.
•DAPs in the environment (EPA STAR Fellowship): Measurements of DAPs in urine may come from OP pesticide in child or intake of preformed DAPs. We measured preformed DAPs in dust. DAPs were present in dust but did not significantly contribute to measured DAPs in urine (Quirós-Alcalá et al. 2012).
•PBDEs in Pregnant women and children (NIEHS): We have published two articles in ES&T, one examining predictors of PBDEs in maternal blood during pregnancy (Castorina, et al., 2011) and one examining predictors of PBDE in child blood (Bradman, et al., 2012)
•BPA: An article examining BPA exposures in final preparation for submittal (Quirós-Alcalá, et al.)
•Environmental Quality in Child Care: Asa Bradman completed a major study examining environmental quality in child care with funding by the California Air Resources Board.
 

Project C (R834513C003)

1. To analyze global DNA methylation in newborn children by three different assays.

Our preliminary analysis of global methylation as measured by pyrosequencing of LINE-1 and Alu repeats revealed systematic differences due to batch variability. To address this issue, all samples were reanalyzed in triplicate as one single batch performed on the same day to minimize technical variability. All sample plates were designed to ensure that genders and ages were distributed similarly on each plate. Mean LINE-1 global methylation was significantly higher in boys compared to girls in both newborns (p = 0.033) and 9 year olds (p < 0.005). Higher Alu global methylation was also observed in boys but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.063).

 
We also completed analysis of global and site-specific methylation in 485,577 CpG sites using the Illumina Infinium Methylation 450K Assay in an additional 96 samples. Overall, the assay showed good reproducibility. DNA methylation levels measured for duplicate samples were highly correlated with each other. However, we determined that the current normalization methodologies recommended by the manufacturer (normalization of green and red channel signals for all samples in the project by the control signals measured for the first sample in the first project plate) were inadequate for reducing technical variability and risked biasing results. We are currently developing a multiple step normalization process that can adequately adjust for plate variability and a manuscript describing our novel approach is in preparation for submission to Epigenomics.
 
2. To determine ontogenetic changes in global DNA methylation in blood of children between birth and 12 years.
 
Global methylation via pyrosequencing of Alu and Line-1 repeats has been performed in > 600 blood samples collected from CHAMACOS children at delivery, 2, 5, 7, and 9 years of age. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) to assess differences in LINE-1 and Alu methylation by age while accounting for within subject correlations. LINE-1 global DNA methylation was found to decrease 0.3% per month increase in child age (95% CI: 0.2 – 0.6%). A similar decreasing trend was found for Alu methylation as well, but this association was not statistically significant (p = 0.18).
 
3. To investigate the relationship of in utero and 9-year-old blood concentrations of DDT/E and PBDEs with global DNA methylation.
 
Small but consistent decreases in global methylation measured by both LINE-1 and Alu assays were observed in response to OC and PBDE exposures. However, none of these effects reached statistical significance, likely due to low power to detect small effect sizes.
 
4. To determine whether global methylation is associated with onset of puberty and hormonal changes.
 
Assessment of pubertal onset at age 9 has been completed in all children (n = 314). These data are still in the process of being entered and cleaned. Analysis of the association between global methylation and age of pubertal onset will begin later this year.
 
5. To examine site-specific methylation in relation to age, sex, exposure to DDT/E and PBDEs and puberty onset.
 
We analyzed genome-wide and site-specific DNA methylation in 142 CHAMACOS children for subjects that had matched data both at birth and 9 years of age using the Illumina 450k platform and found meaningful variation in methylome by sex and age. We found that 78,599 CpG sites in 15,411 genes were differentially methylated between newborns and 9-year-olds after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing. Among boys and girls, 8,741CpG sites in 1,329 genes were differentially methylated by sex in newborns after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing. Furthermore, multiple genes and CpG sites that were differentially methylated in restricted analyses for age and sex were also found to overlap across both of these factors. For exposure, we identified over 100 CpG sites that were differentially methylated by at least one organochlorine congener after adjusting for multiple testing using the false discovery rate (FDR) in 9-year-old children. Pathway enrichment analysis for the 101 genes differentially methylated by o,p’-DDT exposure identified 10 pathways as significantly overrepresented in our sample, including Neurotropin signaling, spliceosome, and the p53 tumor suppression pathways. Additionally, gene ontology enrichment analysis identified cell-cycle and signaling pathways as significantly overrepresented. In contrast to organochlorines, we observed very few CpG sites that were differentially methylated by PBDE exposure.
 

COTC Core (R834513C004)

1. To disseminate Center research findings to study participants, the Salinas Valley community, and other stakeholders.

Over the past year, we have conducted several activities to achieve this aim:
 
Community forum: Our annual community forum was held November 19, 2011, with an unprecedented attendance with over 200 participants and family members. The forum included engaging activities to increase interest in study findings, with separate sessions for parents and children. The parents received a presentation on recent CHAMACOS findings, highlighting the April 2011 publication which found an association between Maternal DAPS and IQ in 7-year olds. The children participated in a discussion on the CHAMACOS study, including a spin-wheel game to test their knowledge of CHAMACOS and of general environmental health.
 
•Newsletter: Our annual newsletter was mailed in late October 2011 to over 650 study participants, community leaders, and other stakeholders and covered recent study findings, what participants could expect at the 12-year visit, and other topics of interest. The newsletter is available both in English and Spanish and can be found on the CERCH website.
 
•Electronic Newsletter: We have regularly sent out email announcements about our new publications and activities to a list of 1,100 members. The e-newsletter is only in English and is targeted mainly at researchers but also reaches students, advocates, health professionals, growers, farmworkers and other community members. Interested individuals can sign up for the e-newsletter at presentations and workshops and through the CERCH website.
 
•Dissemination to larger community and targeted groups:
In the Salinas Valley, we conducted nearly 60 community meetings and participated in several health fairs to discuss recent Center findings and other environmental health issues. Through these efforts, we made contact with 933 children, 1,949 women, and 1,249 men. On June 12, 2012, we presented the latest scientific findings to our Community Advisory Board, which includes representatives from the health, agriculture, and farmworker communities.
 
•Dissemination to the scientific community: We have published numerous scientific papers and conducted several presentations at scientific meetings (see lists with each project), including briefings with senior scientific and management staff at the California Department of Pesticide Regulation.
 
•Website: Our website (www.cerch.org) broadly presents the work by the Center, including information on the CHAMACOS study, with pages for specific audience groups including parents, families, children and teens, community groups, and health professionals. We are developing an Online Resource Center with links to environmental health education materials.
 
2. To increase awareness about children’s environmental health among low-income Latino communities, clinicians, and service providers through widespread dissemination of innovative outreach and educational programs.
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Outreach to pregnant women: We are updating the Prenatal Environmental Health Kiosk reach a wider audience, including translating it to English and adding information on emerging chemical exposure for pregnant women (including BPA, Phthalates, and Flame Retardants). English and Spanish versions of the Kiosk are available in the CERCH Online Resource Center.
 
•Outreach to childcare providers: In collaboration with the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), we continue to conduct workshops on healthy environments in childcare settings. We presented seven trainings in Alameda and Monterey counties and one for the Los Angeles Office of Education, which provides Head Start preschool services to 28,000 children. We have also worked with CCHP to publish an Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for childcare providers. See http://www.ucsfchildcarehealth.org/html/pandr/trainingcurrmain.htm.
 
•Outreach to social service organizations: We continue to provide presentations and trainings to community groups in Monterey County on the following topics: Preventing Pesticide Exposure, CHAMACOS Findings Overview, Healthy Homes, and Heat Illness Prevention.
 
•Outreach to farmworkers: Our Farmworker Council of former and current farmworkers in the Salinas Valley met in June 2012 to discuss outreach strategies and provide farmworker input into Center research and health promotion activities. We share Spanish-language summaries of our research with this group before it is published. Additionally, we have conducted a series of trainings on the Worker Protection Standard for farmworkers in the Salinas Valley.
 
•Outreach to growers and the agricultural industry: Our Agricultural Council, which includes local, state, and national organizations involved in agricultural production, research, regulation, and marketing, met on June 15, 2011, to review recent and upcoming publications.
 
3. To build the capacity of Salinas Valley youth to promote healthy environmental policies in their community.
The goal of the CHAMACOS Youth Community Council (YCC) is to build youth capacity to promote healthy environmental policies in Salinas. The group consists of 15 youth from Salinas, CA and we meet with them twice per month. The YCC took part in a Photovoice Project over the summer of 2011 where they identified elements of their environments that impact health of their community. They have shared these photos on the radio, on local television, and in person to community leaders and local public health professionals. From the Photovoice project, two actions projects were identified: (1) reducing garbage in their community by implementing a recycling program at one of the local high schools, and (2) working with other youth groups to plan a 5k Run/Walk (which took place on June 2, 2102) to draw attention to the lack of safe spaces for physical activity in the area.
 
4. To educate policy makers at the local, state, and national levels about Center research findings and children’s environmental health priorities.
We were invited to present the CHAMACOS Study findings of pesticides and children’s health to the state senator for the Salinas Valley, Luis Alejo. Mr. Alejo was also very interested in the center’s work on flame retardants and in sharing the information from the study with other elected officials in the Salinas Valley. Additionally Salinas City Council member Sergio Sanchez invited us to present our work on flame retardants to the Salinas Fire Chief and Fire Marshall.

Future Activities:

Project A (R834513C001): In year 4, we will complete the 10½ year and continue with the 11¼ and 12 year visits. We will complete data entry and cleaning of the 9 and 9¾ year questionnaires, neurodevelopment, and Tanner staging data. We anticipate that PBDE and DDT/E concentrations at 9 years will be available by late summer 2012. Marc Andre Verner will begin the construction of PBPK models once the DDT/E and PBDE results are received. Statistical analyses of 9 year data for Aims 2 and 3 will begin when these results are available.
 

Project B (R834513C002): The timeline for this project has not changed. In the next year, measurements of Mn in teeth, and for a subset, maternal and child blood, urine, hair and breastmilk, will be completed. We have begun analyses examining the interrelationships of Mn in teeth and other biological samples and predictors of Mn in house dust. PBDEs are being measured in blood from CHAMACOS nine year old children. We expect to publish at least three manuscripts this year, one on predictors of Mn in dust, one examining predictors of Mn levels in teeth, and one examining the interrelationships of Mn in biological samples.

 

Project C (R834513C003): Later this year, we will begin analysis of the relationship between DNA methylation (global and site-specific) and pubertal onset. We will also confirm our preliminary findings for Alu, LINE-1 and Illumina for a larger sample size.

 

COTC Core (R834513C004): Our plans over the next year include:

Dissemination of Center research findings: We plan to hold a community forum, continue targeted outreach to community groups, and respond to invitations for presentations. We will be holding a meeting of our Community Advisory Board and Grower and Farmworker Councils. We will also continue our dissemination to the scientific community.

Education on children’s environmental health: Once we complete revisions to the Prenatal Environmental Health Kiosk we will develop a guide for its use in additional health clinics and social service agencies. Environmental education to childcare providers and community groups will continue.

Youth Community Council: Over the summer, the YCC will engage in another project similar to the Photovoice Project. YCC members will go out into their community and conduct research identifying neighborhood features that affect the health of members of their community. For this project, we will be working with the Monterey County Health Department.

Policy Makers: We will continue to present our research to policy makers as requested.

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Journal Articles: 137 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 666 publications 138 publications in selected types All 137 journal articles
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Journal Article Alkon A, Boyce WT, Davis NV, Eskenazi B. Developmental changes in autonomic nervous system resting and reactivity measures in Latino children from 6 to 60 months of age. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 2011;32(9):668-677. R834513 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Alkon A, Boyce WT, Tran L, Harley KG, Neuhaus J, Eskenazi B. Prenatal adversities and Latino children's autonomic nervous system reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age. PLoS One 2014;9(1):e86283. R834513 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Alkon A, Harley KG, Neilands TB, Tambellini K, Lustig RH, Boyce WT, Eskenazi B. Latino children's body mass index at 2-3.5 years predicts sympathetic nervous system activity at 5 years. Childhood Obesity 2014;10(3):214-224. R834513 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Arora M, Bradman A, Austin C, Vedar M, Holland N, Eskenazi B, Smith D. Determining fetal manganese exposure from mantle dentine of deciduous teeth. Environmental Science & Technology 2012;46(9):5118-5125. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Arora M, Bradman A, Austin C, Vedar M, Holland N, Eskenazi B, Smith DR. Determining fetal manganese exposure from mantle dentine of deciduous teeth. Environmental Science & Technology 2012;46(9):5118-5125. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Audelo J, Kogut K, Harley KG, Rosas LG, Stein L, Eskenazi B. Maternal depression and childhood overweight in the CHAMACOS Study of Mexican-American children. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2016;20(7):1405-1414. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article AugsJoost B, Jerman P, Deardorff J, Harley K, Constantine NA. Factors associated with parent support for condom education and availability. Health Education & Behavior 2014;41(2):207-215. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Austin C, Smith TM, Bradman A, Hinde K, Joannes-Boyau R, Bishop D, Hare DJ, Doble P, Eskenazi B, Arora M. Barium distributions in teeth reveal early-life dietary transitions in primates. Nature 2013;498(7453):216-219. R834513 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Beamer PI, Canales RA, Bradman A, Leckie JO. Farmworker children’s residential non-dietary exposure estimates from micro-level activity time series. Environment International 2009;35(8):1202-1209. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Beamer PI, Canales RA, Ferguson AC, Leckie JO, Bradman A. Relative pesticide and exposure route contribution to aggregate and cumulative dose in young farmworker children. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2012;9(1):73-96. R834513 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Beamer P, Canales RA, Leckie JO. Developing probability distributions for transfer efficiencies for dermal exposure. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2009;19(3):274-283. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Bouchard MF, Chevrier J, Harley KG, Kogut K, Vedar M, Calderon N, Trujillo C, Johnson C, Bradman A, Barr DB, Eskenazi B. Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and IQ in 7-year-old children. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(8):1189-1195. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Bradman A, Fenster L, Sjodin A, Jones RS, Patterson Jr DG, Eskenazi B. Polybrominated diphenyl ether levels in the blood of pregnant women living in an agricultural community in California. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007;115(1):71-74. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Bradman A, Castorina R, Barr DB, Chevrier J, Harnly ME, Eisen EA, McKone TE, Harley K, Holland N, Eskenazi B. Determinants of organophosphorus pesticide urinary metabolite levels in young children living in an agricultural community. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2011;8(4):1061-1083. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Bradman A, Castorina R, Sjodin A, Fenster L, Jones RS, Harley KG, Chevrier J, Holland NT, Eskenazi B. Factors associated with serum polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels among school-age children in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environmental Science & Technology 2012;46(13):7373-7381. R834513 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Bradman A, Kogut K, Eisen EA, Jewell NP, Quiros-Alcala L, Castorina R, Chevrier J, Holland NT, Barr DB, Kavanagh-Baird G, Eskenazi B. Variability of organophosphorous pesticide metabolite levels in spot and 24-hr urine samples collected from young children during 1 week. Environmental Health Perspectives 2013;121(1):118-124. R834513 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Bradman A, Castorina R, Gaspar F, Nishioka M, Colon M, Weathers W, Egeghy PP, Maddalena R, Williams J, Jenkins PL, McKone TE. Flame retardant exposures in California early childhood education environments. Chemosphere 2014;116:61-66. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Bradman A, Quiros-Alcala L, Castorina R, Schall RA, Camacho J, Holland NT, Barr DB, Eskenazi B. Effect of organic diet intervention on pesticide exposures in young children living in low-income urban and agricultural communities. Environmental Health Perspectives 2015;123(10):1086-1093. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Castorina R, Bradman A, Fenster L, Barr DB, Bravo R, Vedar MG, Harnly ME, McKone TE, Eisen EA, Eskenazi B. Comparison of current-use pesticide and other toxicant urinary metabolite levels among pregnant women in the CHAMACOS cohort and NHANES. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(6):856-863. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Castorina R, Bradman A, Sjodin A, Fenster L, Jones RS, Harley KG, Eisen EA, Eskenazi B. Determinants of serum polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels among pregnant women in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environmental Science & Technology 2011;45(15):6553-6560. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Castorina R, Bradman A, Stapleton HM, Butt C, Avery D, Harley KG, Gunier RB, Holland N, Eskenazi B. Current-use flame retardants: maternal exposure and neurodevelopment in children of the CHAMACOS cohort. Chemosphere 2017;189:574-580. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Castorina R, Butt C, Stapleton HM, Avery D, Harley KG, Holland N, Eskenazi B, Bradman A. Flame retardants and their metabolites in the homes and urine of pregnant women residing in California (the CHAMACOS cohort). Chemosphere 2017;179:159-166. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Chadwick LH, Sawa A, Yang IV, Baccarelli A, Breakefield XO, Deng H-W, Dolinoy DC, Fallin MD, Holland NT, Houseman EA, Lomvardas S, Rao M, Satterlee JS, Tyson FL, Vijayanand P, Greally JM. New insights and updated guidelines for epigenome-wide association studies. Neuroepigenetics 2015;1:14-19. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Chevrier J, Harley KG, Bradman A, Gharbi M, Sjodin A, Eskenazi B. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and thyroid hormone during pregnancy. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(10):1444-1449. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Chevrier J, Harley KG, Bradman A, Sjodin A, Eskenazi B. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in the CHAMACOS study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2011;174(10):1166-1174. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Chevrier J, Harley KG, Kogut K, Holland N, Johnson C, Eskenazi B. Maternal thyroid function during the second half of pregnancy and child neurodevelopment at 6, 12, 24, and 60 months of age. Journal of Thyroid Research 2011;2011:426427 (13 pp.). R834513 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Chevrier J, Gunier RB, Bradman A, Holland NT, Calafat AM, Eskenazi B, Harley KG. Maternal urinary bisphenol A during pregnancy and maternal and neonatal thyroid function in the CHAMACOS study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2013;121(1):138-144. R834513 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Chevrier J, Warner M, Gunier RB, Brambilla P, Eskenazi B, Mocarelli P. Serum dioxin concentrations and thyroid hormone levels in the Seveso Women’s Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180(5):490-498. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Chopra V, Harley K, Lahiff M, Eskenazi B. Association between phthalates and attention deficit disorder and learning disability in U.S. children, 6-15 years. Environmental Research 2014;128:64-69. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Coker E, Gunier R, Bradman A, Harley K, Kogut K, Molitor J, Eskenazi B. Association between Pesticide Profiles Used on Agricultural Fields near Maternal Residences during Pregnancy and IQ at Age 7 Years. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2017;14(5):506 (20 pp.). R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Dannemiller KC, Mendell MJ, Macher JM, Kumagai K, Bradman A, Holland N, Harley K, Eskenazi B, Peccia J. Next-generation DNA sequencing reveals that low fungal diversity in house dust is associated with childhood asthma development. Indoor Air 2014;24(3):236-247. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Dave V, Yousefi P, Huen K, Volberg V, Holland N. Relationship between expression and methylation of obesity-related genes in children. Mutagenesis 2015;30(3):411-420. R834513 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Dave V, Street K, Francis S, Bradman A, Riley L, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Bacterial microbiome of breast milk and child saliva from low-income Mexican-American women and children. Pediatric Research 2016;79(6):846-854. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Duramad P, Holland NT. Biomarkers of immunotoxicity for environmental and public health research. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2011;8(5):1388-1401. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Eastman RR, Jursa TP, Benedetti C, Lucchini RG, Smith DR. Hair as a biomarker of environmental manganese exposure. Environmental Science & Technology 2013;47(3):1629-1637. R834513 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Ehrlich SF, Rosas LG, Ferrara A, King JC, Abrams B, Harley KG, Hedderson MM, Eskenazi B. Pregnancy glucose levels in women without diabetes or gestational diabetes and childhood cardiometabolic risk at 7 years of age. Journal of Pediatrics 2012;161(6):1016-1021. R834513 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Ehrlich SF, Rosas LG, Ferrara A, King JC, Abrams B, Harley KG, Hedderson MM, Eskenazi B. Pregnancy glycemia in Mexican-American women without diabetes or gestational diabetes and programming for childhood obesity. American Journal of Epidemiology 2013;177(8):768-775. R834513 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Engel SM, Bradman A, Wolff MS, Rauh VA, Harley KG, Yang JH, Hoepner LA, Barr DB, Yolton K, Vedar MG, Xu Y, Hornung RW, Wetmur JG, Chen J, Holland NT, Perera FP, Whyatt RM, Lanphear BP, Eskenazi B. Prenatal organophosphorus pesticide exposure and child neurodevelopment at 24 months: an analysis of four birth cohorts. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016;124(6):822-830. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Erkin-Cakmak A, Harley KG, Chevrier J, Bradman A, Kogut K, Huen K, Eskenazi B. In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and body mass at age 7 years: the CHAMACOS Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2015;123(6):636-642. R834513 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Huen K, Marks A, Harley KG, Bradman A, Barr DB, Holland N. PON1 and neurodevelopment in children from the CHAMACOS study exposed to organophosphate pesticides in utero. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(12):1775-1781. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Fenster L, Castorina R, Marks AR, Sjodin A, Rosas LG, Holland N, Guerra AG, Lopez-Carrillo L, Bradman A. A comparison of PBDE serum concentrations in Mexican and Mexican-American children living in California. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(10):1442-1448. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Chevrier J, Rauch SA, Kogut K, Harley KG, Johnson C, Trujillo C, Sjodin A, Bradman A. In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposures and neurodevelopment in the CHAMACOS study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2013;121(2):257-262. R834513 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Bradman A, Finkton D, Purwar M, Noble JA, Pang R, Burnham O, Cheikh Ismail L, Farhi F, Barros FC, Lambert A, Papageorghiou AT, Carvalho M, Jaffer YA, Bertino E, Gravett MG, Altman DG, Ohuma EO, Kennedy SH, Bhutta ZA, Villar J, International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century. A rapid questionnaire assessment of environmental exposures to pregnant women in the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2013;120(Suppl 2):129-138. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Warner M, Sirtori M, Fuerst T, Rauch SA, Brambilla P, Mocarelli P, Rubinacci A. Serum dioxin concentrations and bone density and strucure in the Seveso Women’s Health Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2014;122(1):51-57. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Quiros-Alcala L, Lipsitt JM, Wu LD, Kruger P, Ntimbane T, Nawn JB, Bornman R, Seto E. mSpray: a mobile phone technology to improve malaria control efforts and monitor human exposure to malaria control pesticides in Limpopo, South Africa. Environment International 2014;68:219-226. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Kogut K, Huen K, Harley KG, Bouchard M, Bradman A, Boyd-Barr D, Johnson C, Holland N. Organophosphate pesticide exposure, PON1, and neurodevelopment in school-age children from the CHAMACOS study. Environmental Research 2014;134:149-157. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Rauch SA, Tenerelli R, Huen K, Holland NT, Lustig RH, Kogut K, Bradman A, Sjödin A, Harley KG. In utero and childhood DDT, DDE, PBDE and PCBs exposure and sex hormones in adolescent boys: the CHAMACOS study. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 2017;220(2 Pt B):364-372. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gaspar FW, Castorina R, Maddalena RL, Nishioka MG, McKone TE, Bradman A. Phthalate exposure and risk assessment in California child care facilities. Environmental Science & Technology 2014;48(13):7593-7601. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Gaspar FW, Harley KG, Kogut K, Chevrier J, Mora AM, Sjodin A, Eskenazi B. Prenatal DDT and DDE exposure and child IQ in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environment International 2015;85:206-212. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Gemmill A, Gunier RB, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Harley KG. Residential proximity to methyl bromide use and birth outcomes in an agricultural population in California. Environmental Health Perspectives 2013;121(6):737-743. R834513 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Gomez N, Guendelman S, Harley KG, Gomez SL. Nativity and neighborhood characteristics and cervical cancer stage at diagnosis and survival outcomes among Hispanic women in California. American Journal of Public Health 2015;105(3):538-545. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Guerrero J, Madrigal DS, Minkler M. What is…?: a research ethics Jeopardy™ game to help community partners understand human subjects protections and their importance. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action 2014;8(3):405-411. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Gunier RB, Bradman A, Jerrett M, Smith DR, Harley KG, Austin C, Vedar M, Arora M, Eskenazi B. Determinants of manganese in prenatal dentin of shed teeth from CHAMACOS children living in an agricultural community. Environmental Science & Technology 2013;47(19):11249-11257. R834513 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Gunier RB, Mora AM, Smith D, Arora M, Austin C, Eskenazi B, Bradman A. Biomarkers of manganese exposure in pregnant women and children living in an agricultural community in California. Environmental Science & Technology 2014;48(24):14695-14702. R834513 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Gunier RB, Jerrett M, Smith DR, Jursa T, Yousefi P, Camacho J, Hubbard A, Eskenazi B, Bradman A. Determinants of manganese levels in house dust samples from the CHAMACOS cohort. Science of the Total Environment 2014;497-498:360-368. R834513 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Gunier RB, Arora M, Jerrett M, Bradman A, Harley KG, Mora AM, Kogut K, Hubbard A, Austin C, Holland N, Eskenazi B. Manganese in teeth and neurodevelopment in young Mexican-American children. Environmental Research 2015;142:688-695. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Gunier RB, Bradman A, Harley KG, Eskenazi B. Will buffer zones around schools in agricultural areas be adequate to protect children from the potential adverse effects of pesticide exposure? PLoS Biology 2017;15(12):e2004741 (7 pp.). R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gunier RB, Bradman A, Harley KG, Kogut K, Eskenazi B. Prenatal residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use and IQ in 7-year-old children. Environmental Health Perspectives 2017;125(5):057002 (8 pp.). R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gunier RB, Bradman A, Castorina R, Holland NT, Avery D, Harley KG, Eskenazi B. Residential proximity to agricultural fumigant use and IQ, attention and hyperactivity in 7-year old children. Environmental Research 2017;158:358-365. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gunier RB, Raanan R, Castorina R, Holland NT, Harley KG, Balmes JR, Fouquette L, Eskenazi B, Bradman A. Residential proximity to agricultural fumigant use and respiratory health in 7-year old children. Environmental Research. 2018;164:93-99. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Harley KG, Marks AR, Chevrier J, Bradman A, Sjodin A, Eskenazi B. PBDE concentrations in women’s serum and fecundability. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(5):699-704. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Harley KG, Huen K, Aguilar Schall R, Holland NT, Bradman A, Barr DB, Eskenazi B. Association of organophosphate pesticide exposure and paraoxonase with birth outcome in Mexican-American women. PLoS ONE 2011;6(8):e23923 (10 pp.). R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Harley KG, Chevrier J, Schall RA, Sjodin A, Bradman A, Eskenazi B. Association of prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and infant birth weight. American Journal of Epidemiology 2011;174(8):885-892. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Harley KG, Aguilar Schall R, Chevrier J, Tyler K, Aguirre H, Bradman A, Holland NT, Lustig RH, Calafat AM, Eskenazi B. Prenatal and postnatal bisphenol A exposure and body mass index in childhood in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives 2013;121(4):514-520. R834513 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Harley KG, Gunier RB, Kogut K, Johnson C, Bradman A, Calafat AM, Eskenazi B. Prenatal and early childhood bisphenol A concentrations and behavior in school-aged children. Environmental Research 2013;126:43-50. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Harley KG, Engel SM, Vedar MG, Eskenazi B, Whyatt RM, Lanphear BP, Bradman A, Rauh VA, Yolton K, Hornung RW, Wetmur JG, Chen J, Holland NT, Barr DB, Perera FP, Wolff MS. Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and fetal growth: pooled results from four longitudinal birth cohort studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016;124(7):1084-1092. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Harley KG, Engel SM, Vedar MG, Eskenazi B, Whyatt RM, Lanphear BP, Bradman A, Rauh VA, Yolton K, Hornung RW, Wetmur JG, Chen J, Holland NT, Barr DB, Perera FP, Wolff MS. Prenatal exposure to organophosphorous pesticides and fetal growth: pooled results from four longitudinal birth cohort studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016;124(7):1084-1092. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Harley KG, Kogut K, Madrigal DS, Cardenas M, Vera IA, Meza-Alfaro G, She J, Gavin Q, Zahedi R, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Parra KL. Reducing phthalate, paraben, and phenol exposure from personal care products in adolescent girls: findings from the HERMOSA Intervention Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016;124(10):1600-1607. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Harley KG, Rauch SA, Chevrier J, Kogut K, Parra KL, Trujillo C, Lustig RH, Greenspan LC, Sjodin A, Bradman A, Eskenazi B. Association of prenatal and childhood PBDE exposure with timing of puberty in boys and girls. Environment International 2017;100:132-138. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Harley KG, Berger K, Rauch S, Kogut K, Henn BC, Calafat AM, Huen K, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Association of prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and childhood BMI and obesity. Pediatric Research 2017;82(3):405-415. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Harnly ME, Bradman A, Nishioka M, McKone TE, Smith D, McLaughlin R, Kavanagh-Baird G, Castorina R, Eskenazi B. Pesticides in dust from homes in an agricultural area. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(23):8767-8774. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Heggeseth B, Harley K, Warner M, Jewell N, Eskenazi B. Detecting associations between early-life DDT exposures and childhood growth patterns: a novel statistical approach. PLoS ONE 2015;10(6):e0131443 (13 pp.). R834513 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Holland N, Lizarraga D, Huen K. Recent progress in the genetics and epigenetics of paraoxonase: why it is relevant to children's environmental health. Current Opinion in Pediatrics 2015;27(2):240-247. R834513 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Holland N, Huen K, Tran V, Street K, Nguyen B, Bradman A, Eskenazi B. Urinary phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress in a Mexican-American cohort: variability in early and late pregnancy. Toxics 2016;4(1):7 (18 pp.). R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Huen K, Richter R, Furlong C, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Validation of PON1 enzyme activity assays for longitudinal studies. Clinica Chimica Acta 2009;402(1-2):67-74. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Huen K, Harley K, Brooks J, Hubbard A, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Developmental changes in PON1 enzyme activity in young children and effects of PON1 polymorphisms. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(10):1632-1638. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Huen K, Harley K, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Longitudinal changes in PON1 enzymatic activities in Mexican-American mothers and children with different genotypes and haplotypes. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2010;244(2):181-189. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Huen K, Barcellos L, Beckman K, Rose S, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Effects of PON polymorphisms and haplotypes on molecular phenotype in Mexican-American mothers and children. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2011;52(2):105-116. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Huen K, Bradman A, Harley K, Yousefi P, Boyd Barr D, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Organophosphate pesticide levels in blood and urine of women and newborns living in an agricultural community. Environmental Research 2012;117:8-16. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Huen K, Harley K, Beckman K, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Associations of PON1 and genetic ancestry with obesity in early childhood. PLoS One 2013;8(5):e62565. R834513 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Huen K, Yousefi P, Bradman A, Yan L, Harley KG, Kogut K, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Effects of age, sex, and persistent organic pollutants on DNA methylation in children. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2014;55(3):209-222. R834513 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Huen K, Yousefi P, Street K, Eskenazi B, Holland N. PON1 as a model for integration of genetic, epigenetic, and expression data on candidate susceptibility genes. Environmental Epigenetics 2015;1(1):dvv003. R834513 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Huen K, Calafat AM, Bradman A, Yousefi P, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Maternal phthalate exposure during pregnancy is associated with DNA methylation of LINE-1 and Alu repetitive elements in Mexican-American children. Environmental Research 2016;148:55-62. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Huen K, Harley K, Kogut K, Rauch S, Eskenazi B, Holland N. DNA methylation of LINE-1 and Alu repetitive elements in relation to sex hormones and pubertal timing in Mexican-American children. Pediatric Research 2016;79(6):855-862. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Johnson M, Deardorff J, Davis EL, Martinez W, Eskenazi B, Alkon A. The relationship between maternal responsivity, socioeconomic status, and resting autonomic nervous system functioning in Mexican American children. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2017;116:45-52. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lizarraga D, Huen K, Combs M, Escudero-Fung M, Eskenazi B, Holland N. miRNAs differentially expressed by next-generation sequencing in cord blood buffy coat samples of boys and girls. Epigenomics 2016;8(12):1619-1635. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lopez-Espinosa M-J, Mondal D, Armstrong BG, Eskenazi B, Fletcher T. Perfluoroalkyl substances, sex hormones, and insulin-like growth factor-1 at 6-9 years of age: a cross-sectional analysis within the C8 Health Project. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016;124(8):1269-1275. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Macher JM, Mendell MJ, Kumagai K, Holland NT, Camacho JM, Harley KG, Eskenazi B, Bradman A. Higher measured moisture in California homes with qualitative evidence of dampness. Indoor Air 2016;26(6):892-902. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Madrigal DS, Salvatore A, Casillas G, Casillas C, Vera I, Eskenazi B, Minkler M. Health in my community: conducting and evaluating PhotoVoice as a tool to promote environmental health and leadership among Latino/a youth. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action 2014;8(3):317-329. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Marks AR, Harley K, Bradman A, Kogut K, Barr DB, Johnson C, Calderon N, Eskenazi B. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and attention in young Mexican-American children: the CHAMACOS Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(12):1768-1774. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Mora AM, van Wendel de Joode B, Mergler D, Cordoba L, Cano C, Quesada R, Smith DR, Menezes-Filho JA, Lundh T, Lindh CH, Bradman A, Eskenazi B. Blood and hair manganese concentrations in pregnant women from the Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA) in Costa Rica. Environmental Science & Technology 2014;48(6):3467-3476. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Mora AM, van Wendel de Joode B, Mergler D, Cordoba L, Cano C, Quesada R, Smith DR, Menezes-Filho JA, Eskenazi B. Maternal blood and hair manganese concentrations, fetal growth, and length of gestation in the ISA cohort in Costa Rica. Environmental Research 2015;136:47-56. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Mora AM, Arora M, Harley KG, Kogut K, Parra K, Hernandez-Bonilla D, Gunier RB, Bradman A, Smith DR, Eskenazi B. Prenatal and postnatal manganese teeth levels and neurodevelopment at 7, 9, and 10.5 years in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environment International 2015;84:39-54. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Payne-Sturges D, Cohen J, Castorina R, Axelrad DA, Woodruff TJ. Evaluating cumulative organophosphorus pesticide body burden of children: a national case study. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(20):7924-7930. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Quiros-Alcala L, Bradman A, Nishioka M, Harnly ME, Hubbard A, McKone TE, Eskenazi B. Concentrations and loadings of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in dust from low-income households in California. Environment International 2011;37(3):592-596. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Quiros-Alcala L, Bradman A, Nishioka M, Harnly ME, Hubbard A, McKone TE, Ferber J, Eskenazi B. Pesticides in house dust from urban and farmworker households in California: an observational measurement study. Environmental Health 2011;10:19 (15 pp.). R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Quiros-Alcala L, Alkon AD, Boyce WT, Lippert S, Davis NV, Bradman A, Barr DB, Eskenazi B. Maternal prenatal and child organophosphate pesticide exposures and children's autonomic function. NeuroToxicology 2011;32(5):646-655. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Quiros-Alcala L, Bradman A, Smith K, Weerasekera G, Odetokun M, Barr DB, Nishioka M, Castorina R, Hubbard AE, Nicas M, Hammond SK, McKone TE, Eskenazi B. Organophosphorous pesticide breakdown products in house dust and children's urine. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2012;22(6):559-568. R834513 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Quiros-Alcala L, Eskenazi B, Bradman A, Ye X, Calafat AM, Harley K. Determinants of urinary bisphenol A concentrations in Mexican/Mexican-American pregnant women. Environment International 2013;59:152-160. R834513 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Quiros-Alcala L, Mehta S, Eskenazi B. Pyrethroid pesticide exposure and parental report of learning disability and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in U.S. children: NHANES 1999-2002. Environmental Health Perspectives 2014;122(12):1336-1342. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Raanan R, Harley KG, Balmes JR, Bradman A, Lipsett M, Eskenazi B. Early-life exposure to organophosphate pesticides and pediatric respiratory symptoms in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives 2015;123(2):179-185. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Raanan R, Balmes JR, Harley KG, Gunier RB, Magzamen S, Bradman A, Eskenazi B. Decreased lung function in 7-year-old children with early-life organophosphate exposure. Thorax 2016;71(2):148-153. R834513 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Raanan R, Gunier RB, Balmes JR, Beltran AJ, Harley KG, Bradman A, Eskenazi B. Elemental sulfur use and associations with pediatric lung function and respiratory symptoms in an agricultural community (California, USA). Environmental Health Perspectives 2017;125(8):087007 (8 pp.). R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Rosas LG, Harley K, Fernald LC, Guendelman S, Mejia F, Neufeld LM, Eskenazi B. Dietary associations of household food insecurity among children of Mexican descent: results of a binational study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2009;109(12):2001-2009. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Rosas LG, Harley KG, Guendelman S, Fernald LC, Mejia F, Eskenazi B. Maternal perception of child weight among Mexicans in California and Mexico. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2010;14(6):886-894. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Rosas LG, Guendelman S, Harley K, Fernald LC, Neufeld L, Mejia F, Eskenazi B. Factors associated with overweight and obesity among children of Mexican descent:results of a binational study. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 2011;13(1):169-180. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Rosas LG, Trujillo C, Camacho J, Madrigal D, Bradman A, Eskenazi B. Acceptability of health information technology aimed at environmental health education in a prenatal clinic. Patient Education and Counseling 2014;97(2):244-247. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Rowe C, Gunier R, Bradman A, Harley KG, Kogut K, Parra K, Eskenazi B. Residential proximity to organophosphate and carbamate pesticide use during pregnancy, poverty during childhood, and cognitive functioning in 10-year-old children. Environmental Research 2016;150:128-137. R834513 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Sagiv SK, Kogut K, Gaspar FW, Gunier RB, Harley KG, Parra K, Villasenor D, Bradman A, Holland N, Eskenazi B. Prenatal and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure and attention and executive function at 9-12 years of age. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2015:52(Pt B):151-161. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Salvatore AL, Chevrier J, Bradman A, Camacho J, Lopez J, Kavanagh-Baird G, Minkler M, Eskenazi B. A community-based participatory worksite intervention to reduce pesticide exposures to farmworkers and their families. American Journal of Public Health 2009;99(Suppl 3):S578-S581. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Salvatore AL, Castorina R, Camacho J, Morga N, Lopez J, Nishioka M, Barr DB, Eskenazi B, Bradman A. Home-based community health worker intervention to reduce pesticide exposures to farmworkers’ children: a randomized-controlled trial. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2015;25(6):608-615. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Scholtz, RI, McLaughlin KR, Cirillo PM, Petreas M, Park J-S, Wolff MS, Factor-Litvak P, Eskenazi B, Krigbaum N, Cohn BA. Assaying organochlorines in archived serum for a large, long-term cohort:implications of combining assay results from multiple laboratories over time. Environment International 2011;37(4):709-714. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Sermondade N, Faure C, Fezeu L, Shayeb AG, Bonde JP, Jensen TK, Van Wely M, Cao J, Martini AC, Eskandar M, Chavarro JE, Koloszar S, Twigt JM, Ramlau-Hansen CH, Borges Jr. E, Lotti F, Steegers-Theunissen RPM, Zorn B, Polotsky AJ, La Vignera S, Eskenazi B, Tremellen K, Magnusdottir EV, Fejes I, Hercberg S, Levy R, Czernichow S. BMI in relation to sperm count: an updated systematic review and collaborative meta-analysis. Human Reproduction Update 2013;19(3):221-231. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Sjodin A, Jones RS, Gunier RB, Wong LY, Holland N, Eskenazi B, Bradman, A. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene in 7-and 9-year-old children and their mothers in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas Cohort. Environmental Science & Technology 2018;52(4):2287-2294. R834513 (Final)
    R834513C002 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Sly PD Eskenazi B, Pronczuk J, Sram R, Diaz-Barriga F, Machin DG, Carpenter DO, Surdu S, Meslin EM. Ethical issues in measuring biomarkers in children's environmental health. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(8):1185-1190. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Solomon O, Yousefi P, Huen K, Gunier RB, Escudero-Fung M, Barcellos LF, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Prenatal phthalate exposure and altered patterns of DNA methylation in cord blood. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2017;58(6):398-410. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Stein LJ, Gunier RB, Harley K, Kogut K, Bradman A, Eskenazi B. Early childhood adversity potentiates the adverse association between prenatal organophosphate pesticide exposure and child IQ: the CHAMACOS cohort. Neurotoxicology 2016;56:180-187. R834513 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Torres JM, Deardorff J, Gunier RB, Harley KG, Alkon A, Kogut K, Eskenazi B. Worry about deportation and cardiovascular disease risk factors among adult women: the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas Study. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2018;52(2):186-193. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Tran V, Tindula G, Huen K, Bradman A, Harley K, Kogut K, Calafat AM, Nguyen B, Parra K, Ye X, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Prenatal phthalate exposure and 8-isoprostane among Mexican-American children with high prevalence of obesity. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 2017;8(2):196-205. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article van Wendel de Joode B, Mora AM, Cordoba L, Cano JC, Quesada R, Faniband M, Wesseling C, Ruepert C, Oberg M, Eskenazi B, Mergler D, Lindh CH. Aerial application of mancozeb and urinary ethylene thiourea (ETU) concentrations among pregnant women in Costa Rica: the Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA). Environmental Health Perspectives 2014;122(12):1321-1328. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Verner M-A, Gaspar FW, Chevrier J, Gunier RB, Sjodin A, Bradman A, Eskenazi B. Increasing sample size in prospective birth cohorts:back-extrapolating prenatal levels of persistent organic pollutants in newly enrolled children. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49(6):3940-3948. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Volberg V, Harley KG, Aguilar RS, Rosas LG, Huen K, Yousefi P, Dave V, Phan N, Lustig RH, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Associations between perinatal factors and adiponectin and leptin in 9-year-old Mexican-American children. Pediatric Obesity 2013;8(6):454-463. R834513 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Volberg V, Heggeseth B, Harley K, Huen K, Yousefi P, Dave V, Tyler K, Vedar M, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Adiponectin and leptin trajectories in Mexican-American children from birth to 9 years of age. PLoS One 2013;8(10):e77964 (8 pp.). R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Volberg V, Harley K, Calafat AM, Dave V, McFadden J, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Maternal bisphenol A exposure during pregnancy and its association with adipokines in Mexican-American children. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2013;54(8):621-628. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Warner M, Mocarelli P, Brambilla P, Wesselink A, Samuels S, Signorini S, Eskenazi B. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity in relation to serum dioxin concentrations: the Seveso Women's Health Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2013;121(8):906-911. R834513 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Warner M, Schall RA, Harley KG, Bradman A, Barr D, Eskenazi B. In utero DDT and DDE exposure and obesity status of 7-year-old Mexican-American children in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives 2013;121(5):631-636. R834513 (2013)
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  • Journal Article Warner M, Wesselink A, Harley KG, Bradman A, Kogut K, Eskenazi B. Prenatal exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and obesity at 9 years of age in the CHAMACOS Study cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;179(11):1312-1322. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Warner M, Mocarelli P, Brambilla P, Wesselink A, Patterson Jr. DG, Turner WE, Eskenazi B. Serum TCDD and TEQ concentrations among Seveso women, 20 years after the explosion. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2014;24(6):588-594. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Warner M, Ye M, Harley K, Kogut K, Bradman A, Eskenazi B. Prenatal DDT exposure and child adiposity at 12 years of age in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environmental Research 2017;159:606-612. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Waters SF, Boyce WT, Eskenazi B, Alkon A. The impact of maternal depression and overcrowded housing on associations between autonomic nervous system reactivity and externalizing behavior problems in vulnerable Latino children. Psychophysiology 2016;53(1):97-104. R834513 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Weerasekera G, Smith KD, Quiros-Alcala L, Fernandez C, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Needham LL, Barr DB. A mass spectrometry-based method to measure dialkylphosphate degradation products of organophosphorous insecticides in dust and orange juice. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 2009;11(7):1345-1351. R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Weldon RH, Webster M, Harley KG, Bradman A, Fenster L, Davis MD, Hubbard A, Barr DB, Holland N, Eskenazi B. Serum persistent organic pollutants and duration of lactation among Mexican-American women. Journal of Environmental and Public Health 2010;2010:861757 (11 pp.). R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Weldon RH, Barr DB, Trujillo C, Bradman A, Holland N, Eskenazi B. A pilot study of pesticides and PCBs in the breast milk of women residing in urban and agricultural communities of California. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 2011;13(11):3136-3144. R834513 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Wesselink A, Warner M, Samuels S, Parigi A, Brambilla P, Mocarelli P, Eskenazi B. Maternal dioxin exposure and pregnancy outcomes over 30 years of follow-up in Seveso. Environment International 2014;63:143-148. R834513 (2014)
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  • Journal Article Yousefi P, Huen K, Schall RA, Decker A, Elboudwarej E, Quach H, Barcellos L, Holland N. Considerations for normalization of DNA methylation data by Illumina 450K BeadChip assay in population studies. Epigenetics 2013;8(11):1141-1152. R834513 (2012)
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  • Journal Article Yousefi P, Huen K, Quach H, Motwani G, Hubbard A, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Estimation of blood cellular heterogeneity in newborns and children for epigenome-wide association studies. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2015;56(9):751-758. R834513 (2015)
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  • Journal Article Yousefi P, Huen K, Dave V, Barcellos L, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Sex differences in DNA methylation assessed by 450 K BeadChip in newborns. BMC Genomics 2015;16:911. R834513C003 (2015)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    DDT, DDE, PBDEs, flame retardants, manganese, maneb, puberty, neurodevelopment, behavior, children’s health, CHAMACOS, mancozeb, pesticides, exposure assessment, biomonitoring, house dust, dust loading, teeth, blood, urine measurements, epigenetics, methylation

    Relevant Websites:

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2010 Progress Report
  • 2011 Progress Report
  • 2013 Progress Report
  • 2014 Progress Report
  • 2015 Progress Report
  • Final Report
  • Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R834513C001 CHAMACOS Cohort Project: Pesticides and PBDE on Neurobehavior and Puberty
    R834513C002 Project B: Exposure Project: Mn, DDT/E and PBDE Exposure to Farmworker Children
    R834513C003 Epigenetics Project
    R834513C004 Community Outreach and Translation Core