2011 Progress Report: Characterization of Particulate Emissions from Ships from In Situ Measurements

EPA Grant Number: R834558
Title: Characterization of Particulate Emissions from Ships from In Situ Measurements
Investigators: Cappa, Christopher D
Institution: University of California - Davis
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: April 1, 2010 through March 31, 2013 (Extended to March 31, 2014)
Project Period Covered by this Report: April 1, 2011 through March 31,2012
Project Amount: $249,999
RFA: Novel Approaches to Improving Air Pollution Emissions Information (2009) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Air


The objective(s) of this project are as follows. To make and use measurements of light absorption and extinction by particles, in conjunction with other particle measurements, during the CalNex 2010 field campaign to: (1) quantitatively characterize particulate emissions from ocean going vessels in the regulated waters along the California coast; (2) characterize the variability in the mass absorption coefficient for black carbon particles in the atmosphere, and to work towards understanding the origin of this variability; and (3) investigate variability in sources of black carbon in the near-shore marine boundary layer.

Progress Summary:

Measurements of light absorption and extinction were made during May/June 2010 onboard the R/V Atlantis as part of the CalNex 2010 field campaign. Measurements also were tagged on as part of the CARES 2010 field campaign directly following CalNex, as this was in the same location and provided a useful extension of the CalNex data set. The optical property data collected by the University of California, Davis (UCD), group has been processed and final absorption and extinction data are now available (upon request for CalNex, to eventually be archived with NOAA; at http://www.arm.gov/campaigns/aaf2009carbonaerosol for CARES). During the current project period, we have:
(1) Published a manuscript describing the design, operation and calibration of the photoacoustic aerosol absorption photometer (PAS), which is the key instrument utilized in our various analyses (Lack et al., 2012).
(2) Determined black carbon (BC) emission factors (EFs) for 75+ ocean going vessels that were encountered in the regulated waters off the coast of California during the CalNex study period (May/June 2010). BC EFs were determined both from light absorption measurements (using both the UCD PAS instrument and a particle soot absorption photometer, PSAP) and from a single particle soot photometer (SP2). In general, the BC EFs determined that using these different techniques agree within instrumental uncertainties, and we are in the process of a more extensive comparison. BC EFs are being grouped into different ship/engine type categories to facilitate comparison with literature results. This work provides information on black carbon EFs for ocean going vessels operating under new cleaner fuel requirements as well as understanding of differences in EFs derived from different measurement techniques.
(3) Carried out a case study of the influence of vessel speed on particulate matter and gas-phase emission factors from a vessel operating a medium speed diesel engine. We found that, for this vessel, a reduction in speed led to a significant decrease in the EFs for all particulate species measured, when considered in units of g-PM/kg-fuel consumed. In general, the particle size distribution shifted towards much smaller particles as ship speed decreased. For the gas-phase species, the variation in the EFs with vessel speed is species specific, with CO and HCHO tending to decrease, SO2 remaining constant, and NOx increasing as ship speed increased. This work helps to inform whether EF changes with speed reductions are likely to have a significant influence on the absolute emissions of pollutants in near port regions. This work is currently being revised for resubmission to a journal.
(4) Determined the extent to which the presence of “coatings” internally mixed with ambient black carbon particles leads to changes in light absorption by the black carbon. This work has important implications for understanding the magnitude of climate forcing by black carbon in the atmosphere. This work has been submitted for publication.
(5) Determined the extent to which black carbon that (may) exist on the ocean surface is re-emitted due to wave breaking action and the formation of sea spray particles. Our results suggest that some black carbon may be re-emitted, although relative to the amount of sea salt that is emitted the black carbon emissions are very small. This work has implications for understanding the chemical nature of sea spray aerosol far from sources and has been recently published (Bates et al., 2012).

Future Activities:

We will continue analysis of particulate matter emission factors from ocean going vessels, specifically expanding our study beyond black carbon to multiple PM species.

Journal Articles on this Report : 3 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 19 publications 10 publications in selected types All 10 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Bates TS, Quinn PK, Frossard AA, Russell LM, Hakala J, Petaja T, Kulmala M, Covert DS, Cappa CD, Li S-M, Hayden KL, Nuaaman I, McLaren R, Massoli P, Canagaratna MR, Onasch TB, Sueper D, Worsnop DR, Keene WC. Measurements of ocean derived aerosol off the coast of California. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 2012;117(D21):D00V15 (13 pp.). R834558 (2011)
R834558 (2012)
R834558 (Final)
  • Full-text: AGU-Full Text PDF
  • Abstract: AGU-Abstract & Full Text HTML
  • Journal Article Lack DA, Cappa CD, Langridge J, Bahreini R, Buffaloe G, Brock C, Cerully K, Coffman D, Hayden K, Holloway J, Lerner B, Massoli P, Li S-M, McLaren R, Middlebrook AM, Moore R, Nenes A, Nuaaman I, Onasch TB, Peischl J, Perring A, Quinn PK, Ryerson T, Schwartz JP, Spackman R, Wofsy SC, Worsnop D, Xiang B, Williams E. Impact of fuel quality regulation and speed reductions on shipping emissions:implications for climate and air quality. Environmental Science & Technology 2011;45(20):9052-9060. R834558 (2010)
    R834558 (2011)
    R834558 (2012)
    R834558 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ES&T-Full Text HTML
  • Abstract: ES&T-Abstract
  • Other: ES&T-Full Text PDF
  • Journal Article Lack DA, Richardson MS, Law D, Langridge JM, Cappa CD, McLaughlin RJ, Murphy DM. Aircraft instrument for comprehensive characterization of aerosol optical properties, Part 2:black and brown carbon absorption and absorption enhancement measured with photo-acoustic spectroscopy. Aerosol Science and Technology 2012;46(5):555-568. R834558 (2010)
    R834558 (2011)
    R834558 (2012)
    R834558 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text HTML
  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
  • Other: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
  • Relevant Websites:

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2010 Progress Report
  • 2012 Progress Report
  • Final Report