Final Report: Environmental Design to Address Air Pollution and Equity in Southwestern Detroit

EPA Grant Number: SU833950
Title: Environmental Design to Address Air Pollution and Equity in Southwestern Detroit
Investigators: Larsen, Larissa
Institution: University of Michigan
EPA Project Officer: Nolt-Helms, Cynthia
Phase: I
Project Period: August 15, 2008 through August 14, 2009
Project Amount: $10,000
RFA: P3 Awards: A National Student Design Competition for Sustainability Focusing on People, Prosperity and the Planet (2008) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: P3 Challenge Area - Built Environment , Pollution Prevention/Sustainable Development , P3 Awards , Sustainability


This project focuses on mitigating the impact of coarse particulates such as fugitive dust by using bioengineering strategies that incorporate the use of vegetation. The use of vegetation is a practical and cost-effective land use practice that can help suppress airborne particulates, thus improving local air quality. Although this report makes frequent reference to particulate matter (PM), the recommended bioengineering strategies center on mitigating the impacts from unregulated sources of fugitive dust including industrial facilities and activities, unpaved and barren land, or unwashed roadways.

One of the most concentrated pockets of heavy industrial manufacturing in the United States exists in Southeast Michigan at the confluence of Southwest Detroit and Southeastern Dearborn. Fugitive dust is a prominent source of ambient air pollution in this area. It emanates from numerous unpaved lots, storage piles, and rail yards. In 2004, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designated the seven-county Southeast Michigan region as a non-attainment area for the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) standard. A three-mile airshed buffer around each of the two air monitors recording the highest PM levels in the area defines our project boundaries.

The goal of this project is to identify long-term interventions that will reduce fugitive dust with bioengineering techniques that can be used at large industrial sources as well as smaller and less regulated sources.

Ensuring environmentally healthy neighborhoods is an important goal for residents of Southeast Michigan. To this end, University of Michigan graduate students and faculty in collaboration with Southwest Detroit Environmental Vision (SDEV), a local grassroots environmental non-profit, and the Southeast Michigan Council of Governments (SEMCOG) propose supplementing current regulatory processes with a set of bioengi­neering strategies to mitigate fugitive dust and particulate matter in Southwest Detroit and Southeastern Dearborn. The use of vegetation is a practical and cost-effective land use practice that can aid in suppressing airborne particulates, thus improving the local environment for all.

Because of adverse health and environmental effects, several forms of PM are regulated by the EPA to meet annual and daily National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) under the Clean Air Act. In 2004, the EPA designated the seven-county Southeastern Michigan region as a non-attainment area for the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) standard. The Southwestern High School and Salina Elementary School air monitoring stations exceed the PM2.5 annual arithmetic mean standard of 15 μg/m3 (micrograms per cubic meter), with measurements of 16.4 μg/m3 and 18.2 μg/m3, respectively. Through traditional regulatory processes and creative mitigation strategies, MDEQ and SEMCOG are working to bring the region into attainment by 2010.

This report provides an overarching framework for mitigating fugitive dust using vegetation. It demonstrates the effectiveness of vegetation as a long-term strategy to manage fugitive dust. Vegetation may be used to supplement shorter-term mechanical solutions that primarily block or suppress dust. Specifically, vegetation reduces fugitive dust by absorbing and filtering airborne particulates, reducing local temperature variability, and blocking wind and airborne particles. In order to demonstrate these strategies in practice, this report identifies a number of specific bioengineering techniques that can be used on a variety of sites. Each of these techniques is designed to maximize the effectiveness of vegetation in dust mitigation. They may be used not only as described for particular sites within the study area, but also can serve as templates for sites in areas where fugitive dust poses health risks outside of Southeast Michigan.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

The project area is defined by 3-mile airshed buffers around two Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) air monitors located at Detroit’s Southwestern High School and Salina Elementary School in Dearborn, Michigan. Industrial facilities in the area include, but are not limited to, coal-fired utilities, municipal waste incinerators, sewage sludge incinerators, refineries, iron/steel manufacturers, coke ovens, and chemical plants. Federal and state authorities are work­ing with the largest industries to implement technical solutions to mitigate stationary stack emissions and initiate fugitive dust management strategies. However, located within the project area are many smaller industries and transportation companies that contribute to the fugitive dust problem but are not regularly monitored.

Source Selection:

In order to catalogue sites for fugitive dust mitigation, we used a combination of site visits, aerial photography, and a list of potential fugitive dust sources from MDEQ. A total of 50 sites were selected and categorized in the following manner.

  1. Unpaved Lots at Active Businesses
  2. Uncovered Storage Piles
  3. Barren Unpaved Land
  4. Facilities with Trucking Activities (Track-Out)
  5. Major Truck Routes

Plant Selection and Plant List

Because the purpose of this project is to remediate fugitive dust pollution with bioengineering strategies, the functional characteristics of plant species are extremely important. We developed a list of appropriate trees, shrubs, and herbaceous ground covers based on relevant criteria, including mature height, density, hardiness, precipitation needs, and growth habitat. This plant list is designed to provide guidelines for selecting the plants based on their ability to minimize fugitive dust. Appropriate plants are well-adapted to the local climate, and thus this list includes mostly native species. Native plants minimize maintenance and watering needs and are able to withstand extremes in local temperature and precipitation. While the list focuses on native species, it also includes non-native evergreen species with dense, coarse leaves. Plants with denser canopies more effectively filter and absorb air pollutants than those with porous canopies. Invasive species were carefully excluded from the list to avoid damage to beneficial and desirable plants.

Additional Benefits of Vegetation

Planting vegetation on a site provides benefits that extend beyond improving air quality. Vegetation also is useful in enhancing soil and plays a significant role in managing water quality as well. Air pollution particulates that are not absorbed or filtered through tree canopies collect on the ground where there is a higher potential for them to be dispersed into the air by passing traffic and other activity. They also are frequently carried away in runoff from rain events, as stormwater. Poorly managed stormwater runoff can exacerbate this problem, spreading pollutants across roads and lots, depositing large quantities of sediment in the path of vehicles. While bioengineering strategies discussed throughout this section focus on removing particulates from the air, those that include plants with broad canopies may be used to prevent fugitive dust generation that results from buildup of sediment in streets due to stormwater runoff. Providing proper stormwater drainage and directing runoff into natural filtration areas prevents water erosion and sediment runoff onto roads. Bioengineering techniques that focus on collecting and filtering stormwater through areas planted with trees, grasses, and shrubs can alleviate this problem. Fugitive dust mitigation strategies should include stormwater management techniques in order to more comprehensively address pollution and achieve greater reductions in potential future generation of fugitive dust.

Site Selection Process

We identified vacant or underused properties that have the potential to serve as vegetative buffers. Over the course of 2 months, our team scrutinized aerial imagery and conducted groundtruthing visits to identify more than 50 potential sites. While vegetative bioengineering strategies can be effective on any sized property, we targeted sites exceeding 1 acre in area. Although the suitability of each site for vegetation varies according to site characteristics, soil quality, and climate, this area-wide inventory indicates the potential range of sites possible for vegetative mitigation. From our initial inventory of more than 50 sites, we narrowed our selection based on the criteria that vegetation should be planted close to dust sources and serve as a buffer for residential neighborhoods. We used information from the 2000 U.S. Census to identify block-level populations. Sites located within or near densely populated blocks were given priority. We also used GIS software to determine which sites were located closest to dense areas of fugitive dust sources. Using a combination of these two criteria, we prioritized and selected our demonstration sites based upon identification of ownership and on-the-ground investigation. The result is a short list of four sites for which bioengineering strategies will be most effective given their proximity to both residential areas and fugitive dust sources.

Site # 1 – Mellon/Dix

Current Conditions:

This 6-acre site currently is owned by KDR Land Corporation. The lot is in a high-traffic area amid numerous trucking facilities, storage piles, and unpaved lots. The lot is unpaved and used as a truck storage yard with vehicles frequently entering and exiting. Directly to the southeast is an unpaved equipment storage facility, and an active storage pile sits to the northwest. Both Mellon Road and Dix Road are major truck routes and experience high volumes of industrial traffic.

Proposed Strategy:

This site represents both a source of fugitive dust as well as an opportunity to plant vegetation to capture ambient particle pollution. Thus, the recommended strategy is source-specific. Because of the high traffic volumes in and around the site, it is unlikely that most vegetation will survive on the site itself. In lieu of stabilizing the site with vegetation, we propose covering the unpaved lot with varigated gravel, which will withstand the weight of the trucks and suppress dust. We also propose planting a ring of conifers, such as Colorado Spruce and Austrian Pine, around the edges of the site. It is important to stagger the trees and space them far enough apart (roughly 20 feet) to allow them to fill out as they mature. This will maximize their exposed surface area and allow them to absorb more dust particles. Planting trees around this site will not only absorb ambient dust but also will prevent the wind from carrying dust off this lot.

Site # 46 – Ormond St./ Luther St.

Current Conditions:

This 1.8-acre site serves as a buffer between the single-family residential area to the east and the industrial area to the west. It currently is owned by the Global Gas Corporation. The prevailing wind tends to blow from nearby unpaved industrial areas into the adjacent residential area. Thus, vegetation will create a natural buffer to protect residents. Currently, sparse deciduous trees surround the otherwise treeless site. A fence runs along the site’s northwestern edge.

Proposed Strategy:

The deciduous trees along the site edges will be augmented with a row of co­niferous trees in order to take advantage of the “edge effect” and create more surface area to capture airborne dust. Species such the Austrian or Scotch Pine are useful in screens and masses and are therefore good choices for this site. Because there is no heavily used trucking route adjacent to the site, the vegetation will serve to collect dust being blown from nearby unpaved industrial yards.

Site # 47 – Pleasant St/Beatrice St.

Current Conditions:

The property is 4.9 acres and currently is owned by the Detroit Public School Board. While the site has the potential to be a community park, it was recently fenced due to the discovery of arsenic. As such, any earth-moving activities will need to be conducted with care. It should be noted that the possibility of contamination does not prohibit a tree planting strategy from being successful; indeed, trees often can be used for phytoremediation, which refers to trees’ ability to clean soil through nutrient uptake. Even in the case of arsenic, depending on the level of contamination, robust trees should not suffer damage and will be able to survive. The adjacent property to the northeast (leeward side) of this demonstration site is currently undergoing construction and there is heavy industrial activity to the north, creating large amounts of truck traffic on Pleasant Street. This property also is surrounded by a dense single-family residential area and thus is in the transition zone from residential to industrial land uses.

Proposed Strategy:

This site allows ample room to demonstrate the proper use of multi-row wind breaks while still allowing public access to open space pending issues of contamination. The wind breaks would be planted perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction to reduce ground-level wind speeds. Windbreaks reduce wind speed most effectively when spaced within four to five times the height of the trees used. For example, if the tree species planted will be 30 feet tall, the wind rows should be spaced 120 to 150 feet apart. Effective trees for windbreaks include Austrian and Scotch pines. In addition, there will be a thick row of trees around the edges of the property, while leaving one edge more open in order to facilitate park use by the surrounding community members. We recommend using a mix of deciduous trees, such as the Hackberry or Hawthorne, around the edges of the site for visual appeal.

Site # 49 – Marion Ave.

Current Conditions:

This site is situated among one of the most industrial portions of the study area. It consists of a narrow strip of land approximately thirty feet wide along Marion Avenue. This site is strategically important because of its proximity to nearby neighborhoods. The site borders heavy industry to the southeast along the Detroit River and can therefore serve as a buffer between these sources of particulate pollution and residential areas. The land currently is owned by ITC Holdings Corporation and serves as a utility corridor; therefore, it is important to allow access to the utility towers on the site for service and maintenance.

Proposed Strategy:

In order to effectively create a year-round buffer, we propose planting two rows of small to medium conifers, such as White Fir or Colorado Spruce. Trees should be offset from one another to allow maximum surface area exposure and achieve the desired moderate porosity. The rough surface of these trees will serve to capture and absorb particles kicked up by passing traffic along the alley (between the utility strip and residences) and Marion Avenue.


Due to the intermingling of residential and industrial land uses in Southwest Detroit and Southeastern Dearborn, area residents are constantly in contact with industrial activity and are exposed to its negative side effects. One of the most overlooked side effects is the harm caused by fugitive dust created by high levels of activity on unpaved and heavily used land. Fugitive dust creates a number of adverse health impacts including increased blood pressure, arrhythmia, decreased heart response, and asthma. Given these effects and the increasing levels of particulate pollution in the area, a creative plan to address fugitive dust mitigation is necessary.

In an effort to improve the overall health and welfare of local communities, this report highlights the fugitive dust problem that exists in Southeast Michigan. This report demonstrates the effectiveness of using vegetation as a long-term, cost-effective strategy to manage fugitive dust. Vegetation may be used to supplement shorter-term mechanical solutions that primarily block or suppress particulate matter in the form of fugitive dust. Specifically, vegetation reduces fugitive dust by absorbing and filtering airborne particu­lates, reducing local temperature variability, and blocking wind and airborne particles. In order to demonstrate these strategies in practice, this report identifies a number of specific bioengineering techniques that can be used on a variety of sites with differing characteristics.

  1. Plant vegetation as close to a fugitive dust source as possible.
  2. Plant larger rather than smaller vegetation where possible (i.e., trees and shrubs rather than grasses or herba­ceous groundcover).
  3. Maximize exposed surface area by arranging plants to create edges rather than clusters.
  4. Construct windbreaks using multiple rows of plants of varied height and moderate porosity.
  5. Plant a mixture of coniferous and deciduous vegetation.

Each of these techniques can maximize the effectiveness of vegetation in dust mitigation. They are appropriate not only for the highlighted sites within the study area, but also can serve as templates for sites in areas where fugi­tive dust poses health risks outside of Southeastern Michigan.

Implementing these recommendations will require efforts from a variety of community partners. Mitigating fugitive dust using the strategies outlined in this report requires the collaboration and cooperation of local stakeholders, business leaders, and residents. These organizations and individuals play a vital role in achieving project goals because they bring the resources and skills required to implement the planting of vegetation to reduce fugitive dust generation, as well as placing vegetation in strategic locations to decrease residents’ exposure to particulate matter. Southwest Detroit and Southeastern Dearborn have a number of stakeholders that work to increase the quality of life for local residents. We have identified many organizations that are potentially interested in helping reduce particulate matter exposure in the area.

Given its demonstrated success, bioengineering can play a greater role in enhancing long-term pollution mitigation. Using this report as a guide, industry leaders, community organizations, residents, and other stakeholders throughout southeastern Michigan can take advantage of the aesthetic and functional benefits of vegetation as a cost-effective land use practice in suppressing airborne particulates and improving the local environment for all.


Adams, B. J. & Papa, F. (2000). Urban Stormwater Management Planning with analytical Probabilistic Models. New York: John Wiley Sons, Inc., 53-54.

Ahrens, D. (2003). Meteorology Today: An Introduction to Weather, Cli­mate, and the Environment. Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Learning, Inc.

Ambassador Bridge Enhancement Project Website. Retrieved November 24, 2007 from

American Forests. (2006). Urban Ecosystem Analysis: SE Michigan and City of Detroit. Washington, DC: American Forests.

Arab American Institute. Arab Americans. Retrieved February 16, 2008, from

Armijo, B. Controlling Dust a Must. (2004, February 6). The Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved October 19, 2007 from

Atmosphere, Climate and Environment Information Programme. (2000). En­cyclopedia of Atmospheric Environment: Acid Deposition. Retrieved Decem­ber 6, 2007 from­position.html.

Balestrini, R. & Tagliaferri. (2001). A. Dry deposition of particles and canopy exchange: Comparison of wet, bulk and throughfall deposition at five forest sites in Italy. Atmospheric Environment. 35(36), 6421-6433.

Baulch, V., Zacharias, P. (1997). The Rouge Plant – the art of history. The Detroit News, July 11, 1997.

Beckett, K. P., Freer-Smith, P. H., & Taylor, G. (1998). Urban woodlands: their role in reducing the effects of particulate pollution. Environmental Pollution, 99, 347-360.

Belton, P. In the Way of the Prophet: Ideologies and Institutions in Dearborn, Michigan, America’s Muslim Capitol, The Next American City, (3), Retrieved February 16, 2008, from

Bonisteel, S. (2007) Fox News. In Detroit, It’s the Mexicans Welcoming Visitors to America, January 11, 2007, Retrieved March 3, 2008, from,2933,243180,00.html.

Cardelino, C.A. & Chameides, W.L. (1990). Natural hydrocarbons, urban­ization, and urban ozone. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95(D9), 13, 971-979.

City of Bradford Metropolitan District Council. Air Pollutants Explained. Re­trieved November 1, 2007 from­ronmental_protection/environmental_monitoring/air_pollutants.htm.

City of Detroit (2004). Retrieved February 21, 2008 from

City of Detroit, Master Plan. (2004). 5-11. Retrieved February 16, 2008 from

City of Detroit, Master Plan. (2004). Table 5-6. Compliance with the Air Regu­latory Requirements for Particulate Matter Generation.

City of New York. (2006). PlaNYC: A Greener, Greater New York.

Davis, A. P. & McCuen, R. H. (2005). Stormwater Management for Smart Growth. New York: Springer Science + Business Media, Inc., 4.

Delfino, R. J., Constantinos S., & Malik, S. (2005) Potential role of ultrafine particles in associations between airborne particle mass and cardiovascular health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(8), 934.

Detroit Kids Data. Retrieved November 7, 2007 from http://www.detroitkids­

Detroit River International Crossing Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Section 2 “Alternatives”, p. 52. Retrieved February 11, 2008 from

Detroit River International Crossing Draft Environmental Impact Statement. The Environment: What’s There Now and What are the Impacts.

Detroit Water and Sewerage Department. Retrieved March 3, 2008, from

Dines, N. & Brown, K. (2001). Landscape Architect’s Portable Handbook. New York: Mc-Graw-Hill.

Dockery, D., Pope, C., Xiping, X., Spengler, J. et al. (1993). An Association between Air Pollution and Mortality in Six U.S. Cities. New England Journal of Medicine, 329,1753-1759.

Draft Environmental Assessment for Ambassador Bridge Enhancement Proj­ect. (2007). Appendix K, 5. Retrieved November 24, 2007, from

Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Detroit Intermodal Freight Terminal (DIFT), Section 1, 17.

DTE Energy. Retrieved March 3, 2008, from

Environmental & Water Resources Institute. (2001). Guide for Best Manage­ment Practice (BMP) Selection in Urban Developed Areas. The American Society of Civil Engineers, 35-36.

Freer-Smith, P.H., Beckett, K.P., & Taylor, G. (2005). Deposition velocities to Sorbus aria, Acer campestre, Populus deltoides X trichocarpa ‘Beaupre’, Pinus nigra and X Cupressocyparis leylandii for coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles in the urban environment. Environmental Pollution, 133, 157-167.

Gateway Community Development Cooperative. (2007). Comments to the US Coast Guard Regarding the Ambassador Bridge Expansion Project. Au­gust 30, 2007, 8.

Grantz, D. A. & Vaughan D. L. (2003). Factors in Plant Survival for Revegeta­tion in the Antelope Valley for Particulate Matter Control. Government Re­ports Announcements & Index, 8.

Grantz, D. A., Vaughn D. L., Metheny P.A., & Malkus, P. (1995). Effect of Canopy Structure and Open-Top Chamber Techniques on Micrometeorologi­cal Parameters and the Gradients and Transport of Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide and Ozone in the Canopies of Plum Trees (‘Prunus salicina’) in the San Joaquin Valley. California Air Resources Board.

Keefer, R. F. (2000). Handbook of Soils for Landscape Architecture. New York: Oxford University Press.

Keeler, G. J., Dvonch T., Yip F., Parker E. A., Israel B. A., Marsik F. J., et al. (2002) Assessment of personal and community-level exposures to particulate matter among children with asthma in Detroit, Michigan, as part of Com­munity Action Against Asthma (CAAA). Environmental Health Perspectives 110(2),173–181.

Klug, T. (1999). Railway Cars, Bricks, and Salt: The Industrialization of Southwest Detroit before Auto. Marygrove College, November 5, 1999. Retrieved March 3, 2008, from­west_Detroit_Before_Auto_Klug.pdf.

Leuty, T. (2004). Using Shelterbelts to Reduce Odors Associated with Live­stock Production Barns. Retrieved November 20, 2007 from

Levi, E. (1968). The Distribution of Mineral Elements Following Leaf and Root Uptake. Physiologia Plantarum, 21(1), p. 213-226.

Lewis, T. C., Robins, T. G., Dvonch, J. T., Keeler, G. J., Fuyuen, Y. (2005). Air Pollution–Associated Changes in Lung Function among Asthmatic Chil­dren in Detroit. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(1068)175.

Lovett, G. & Lindberg, S.E. (1984). Dry Deposition and Canopy Exchange in a Mixed Oak Forest as Determined by Analysis of Throughfall. The Journal of Applied Ecology, 21(3), 1013-1027.

 ----------- (1986). Dry deposition of nitrate to a deciduous forest. Biogeochem­istry, 2(2), 137-148.

Magari, S., Schwartz, J., Williams, P., Hauser, R., Smith, T. & Christiani, D. (2002). The association of particulate air metal concentrations with heart rate variability. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110, 875-879.

McDonald, A.G., Bealey, W.J., Fowler, D. et al. (2007). Quantifying the effect of urban tree planting on concentrations and depositions of PM10 in two UK conurbations. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 8455-8467.

Metro. (2002). Green Streets: Innovative Solutions for Stormwater and Stream Crossings. Portland, OR: Metro.

Michigan Department of Community Health. (2002). Preventable Hospital­izations and Rates per 10,000 Population for Patients under 18 Years of Age by Selected Leading Diagnoses, 1996–2000. Lansing, MI: Division for Vital Records and Statistics.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. (2005). Managing Fugi­tive Dust: A Guide for Compliance with the Air Regulatory Requirements for Particulate Matter Generation.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. (2006). 2005 Annual Air Quality Report. Retrieved November 18, 2007 from

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. (2006) Annual Air Quality Report. 27-35. Retrieved November 18, 2007 from­ments/deq/deq-aqd-air-reports-06AQReport_216544_7.pdf.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. (2007). Air Quality Regula­tions. Retrieved January 23, 2008, from­ments/deq/deq-ess-p2tas-FVGuidech1_199604_7.pdf.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. (2007). Dust and Fallout. Retrieved February 16, 2008 from,1607,7-135-3310_4148-11396--,00.html.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. (2008). State Implemen­tation Plan Submittal for Particulate Matter (2.5). Retrieved February 11, 2008, from

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. (2008). State Implementation Plan Submittal for Fine Particulate Matter (draft). Lansing, MI.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. (2008). State Implementa­tion Plan Submittal for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5). Retrieved February 13, 2008, from,1607,7-135-3310---,00.html.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. (2008). Fugitive Dust Control Letter Sample, obtained March 8, 2008.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. (2008). State Implementa­tion Plan Submittal for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5), 30.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. (n.d.). State Implementation Plan Overview. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from,1607,7-135-3310_30151_30154---,00.html.

Michigan Department of Natural Resources (2007). Michigan’s Geological Landscape. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from,1607,7-153-10370_22664-60296--,00.html.

Michigan Department of Transportation. (2005). Context Sensitive Solutions Policy, adopted May 26, 2005, Retrieved November 21, 2007 from,1607,7-151-9621_41446---,00.html.

Missouri Natural Resources Conservation Services. (2004). Windbreak/Shel­terbelt-Odor Control. United States Department of Agriculture.

National Gardening Association. (2008). USDA Hardiness Zone Finder. Re­trieved March 12, 2008 from

National Resources Defense Council. (2006). Rooftops to Rivers: Green Strategies for Controlling Stormwater and Combined Sewer Overflows.

Nowak, D.J. (1994). Air pollution removal by Chicago’s urban forest. In McPherson, E.G, Nowak, D.J. and Rowntree, R.A. (Eds), Chicago’s Urban Forest Ecosystem: Results of the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NE-186 (63-81). Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, and Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.

---------- (N.D.). The Effect of Urban Trees on Air Quality. (1994). Syracuse, NY: USDA Forest Service.

Nowak, D.J., Civerolo, K.L., Rao, S.T., Sistla, S., Luley, C.J., & Crane, D.E. (2000). A modeling study of the impact of urban trees on ozone. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 1601-1613.

Nowak, D. J., Crane, D. E., & Stevens, J. C. (2006). Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States. Urban Forestry & Urban Green­ing, 4, 115-123.

Nowak, D.J., McHale P.J., Ibarra, M., Crane, D., Stevens, J., & Luley, C. (1998). Modeling the effects of urban vegetation on air pollution, In S. Gryn­ing and N. Chaumerliac, (Eds.), Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XII. (399-408). New York: Plenum Press.

Pidwirny, M. (2007). Chapter 8: Introduction to the hydrosphere. Physical Geography. Retrieved January 20, 2007 from

Pope, C., Bates, D., & Raizenned, M. (1995). Health Effects of Particulate Air Pollution: Time for Reassessment? Environmental Health Perspectives, 103(5), 472-480.

Ritchie, I. (2007). Effects of PM2.5 on Children’s Health in Indiana. Issue Paper for: Summit for Children’s Environmental Health at Indiana University- Purdue University Indianapolis. Retrieved November 1, 2007, from

Rowland, A.J., Drew, M.C., & Wellburn, A.R. (1987). Foliar Entry and In­corporation of Atmospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Into Barley Plants of Different Nitrogen Status. New Phytologist, 107(2), 357-371. (2007). Climate for Detroit, Michigan. Retrieved March 8, 2008 from

Russ, T. H. (2002). Site Planning and Design Handbook. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Southeast Michigan Council of Governments (2003). Regional Development Forecast Community Detail Report. Retrieved March 2, 2008, from

Southeast Michigan Council of Governments (2007). Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Conformity Analysis of the for the Proposed Amendment of SEM­COG’s 2030 Regional Transportation Plan for Southeast Michigan.

Stalfelt, M. G. (1962). The Effect of Temperature on Opening of the Stomatal Cells. Physiologia Plantarum, 15(4), 772-779.

The Columbia Encyclopedia. (2007). Detroit, City, United States. Sixth Edi­tion.

The Henry Ford: The Living Roof. Retrieved March 3, 2008 from

The National Conference of State Legislatures. (2005). EPA finalizes Clean Air Interstate Rule. Retrieved January 12, 2008, from

United States Census. (2000). Retrieved March 2, 2008, from

United States Census. (2003). The Arab Population: 2000. Census 2000 Brief. December 2003, Retrieved February 16, 2008 from

United States Department of Commerce. National Climatic Data Center. (2005). United States Climate Normals 1971-2000. Retrieved November 13, 2007 from

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1996). Nonpoint Source Pollution: The Nation’s Largest Water Quality Problem. Retrieved December 04, 2007 from

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2004). National Center for Environmental Assessment: Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (Octo­ber 2004). Retrieved October 29, 2007 from

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2006). Approval and Prom­ulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan; Revised Format of 40 CFR Part 52 for Materials Being Incorporated by Reference. Retrieved Janu­ary 12, 2008, from

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2006). Final Revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particle Pollution (Particulate Matter).

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2006). Health and Environ­ment. Retrieved November 28, 2007 from­clepollution/health.html.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). Particulate Matter: Health and Environment. Retrieved February 16, 2008, from

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). Clean Air Interstate Rule: Basic Information. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). Criteria Pollutants. Retrieved November 2, 2007 from

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). Detroit River-Western Lake Erie Basin Indicator Project. Retrieved February 3, 2008, from

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). Great Lakes Pollu­tion Prevention and Toxics Reduction: Detroit River Area of Concern. Re­trieved February 3, 2008, from

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). Green Book. Nonat­tainment Areas for Criteria Pollutants (last updated, December 21, 2007), Retrieved March 4, 2007, from

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). Midwest Clean Die­sel Initiative: U.S./Canada Border Areas. Retrieved January 11, 2008, from

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). Particulate Matter. Retrieved November 15, 2007 from

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). Particulate Matter. Retrieved February 15, 2008 from

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). Reducing Particle Pollution. Retrieved November 15, 2007 from­clepollution/reducing.html.

United States Forest Service and The Center for Urban Forest Research. (2006). Trees – the Air Pollution Solution. Davis, CA: The Center for Urban Forest Research.

United States National Arboretum. (1990). USDA Plant Hardiness Zones Map. Retrieved March 8, 2008 from:

Vorenberg, S. Getting a fix on state’s dust problem starts at the border and fans up. (2006, January 22). The Albuquerque Tribune. Retrieved October 20, 2007 from

Washington Administrative Code Regulation 173-400-040 (8)(a), 2.

Washington State Department of Ecology. (2003). Hazardous Waste and Toxics Reduction Program, Techniques for Dust Prevention and Suppression.