Identifying the Physical and Chemical Properties of Particulate Matter Responsible for the Observed Adverse Health Effects

EPA Grant Number: R827353C014
Subproject: this is subproject number 014 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827353
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: EPA Harvard Center for Ambient Particle Health Effects
Center Director: Koutrakis, Petros
Title: Identifying the Physical and Chemical Properties of Particulate Matter Responsible for the Observed Adverse Health Effects
Investigators: Koutrakis, Petros , Coull, Brent , Godleski, John J. , Lawrence, Joy
Institution: Harvard University
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2005 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air

Objective:

Although many of the individual toxicological studies described here were done with support of other grants, the final analyses were done with support from our Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) PM Center. The primary objectives of the analyses conducted for this project were: to characterize the components of CAPs that are significantly associated with the development of pulmonary inflammation; to determine whether short term exposures to CAPs alter the morphology of small pulmonary arteries; and to determine if increased pathologic responses may have similarly resulted from concentrated exposures to what may be considered non-toxic silicate particles. These analyses have resulted in a number of publications, several of which are described below (Batalha, et al., 2002; Saldiva, et al., 2002; Godleski, et al., 2002).

To characterize the components of CAPs that are significantly associated with the development of pulmonary inflammation, mature male rats were exposed to CAPs using the Harvard/EPA Ambient Particle Concentrator (HAPC) to determine if pulmonary inflammation was affected in a dose-dependent manner. Chronic bronchitic (CB) rats were employed as a model of pulmonary disease (250 ppm SO2 x 5 days/week for 6 weeks). Age-matched, room air-exposed rats were used as a normal control group. For urban particle exposures, normal or CB animals were exposed by inhalation for 6 hours/day for three consecutive days to CAPs or filtered air. In all, we had six complete studies as outlined in Table 1 below. This number of experimental exposures allowed us to relate CAPs composition to animal responses. Before the first day of exposure, and after the last day of exposure, animals in each group had breathing pattern studies using the BUXCO analysis system. On the day after the last exposure, animals were sacrificed and studied by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), collection of BAL cellular RNA, total lung RNA and collection of lung and heart tissues for morphologic studies.

Table 1. Experimental Design

Date

Total # of Animals

Number of animals for BAL Studies

No. of Animals for Histology Studies

No. of Animals for BUXCO Studies

Three-Day Mean CAPs (μg/m3)

Conc. Factor

 

 

Air

CB

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sham

CAPs

Sham

Caps

 

 

 

 

Mar. 1997

40

8

8

8

8

2

none

170.7

19.9

June 1997

40

8

8

8

8

2

6-8

481.0

29.9

Sept 1997

48

10

10

10

10

2

15-21

187.1

12.1

Jan 1998

47

8

8

8

8

3-4

9-12

126.1

18.2

Mar. 1998

40

8

8

7

8

2-3

6-12

267.3

35.1

June 1998

44

7

8

8

8

2-4

8-12

300.7

38.2

Publications and Presentations:

Publications have been submitted on this subproject: View all 5 publications for this subprojectView all 156 publications for this center

Journal Articles:

Journal Articles have been submitted on this subproject: View all 5 journal articles for this subprojectView all 153 journal articles for this center

Supplemental Keywords:

RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, HUMAN HEALTH, Toxicology, particulate matter, Air Pollution Monitoring, Environmental Chemistry, air toxics, Epidemiology, Air Pollution Effects, Environmental Microbiology, Microbiology, Risk Assessments, Susceptibility/Sensitive Population/Genetic Susceptibility, Health Effects, Physical Processes, Environmental Monitoring, Atmospheric Sciences, Molecular Biology/Genetics, indoor air, Children's Health, genetic susceptability, Biology, Risk Assessment, ambient air quality, interindividual variability, molecular epidemiology, monitoring, particulates, sensitive populations, chemical exposure, air pollutants, cardiopulmonary responses, health risks, human health effects, indoor exposure, PM 2.5, ambient air monitoring, exposure and effects, ambient air, ambient measurement methods, exposure, lead, pulmonary disease, developmental effects, epidemelogy, biological response, respiratory disease, air pollution, ambient monitoring, children, Human Health Risk Assessment, particle exposure, biological mechanism , cardiopulmonary response, human exposure, inhalation, pulmonary, susceptibility, particulate exposure, assessment of exposure, ambient particle health effects, human susceptibility, environmental health hazard, inhalation toxicology, cardiopulmonary, indoor air quality, inhaled particles, air quality, cardiovascular disease, dosimetry, exposure assessment, human health risk, respiratory

Progress and Final Reports:

  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827353    EPA Harvard Center for Ambient Particle Health Effects

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827353C001 Assessing Human Exposures to Particulate and Gaseous Air Pollutants
    R827353C002 Quantifying Exposure Error and its Effect on Epidemiological Studies
    R827353C003 St. Louis Bus, Steubenville and Atlanta Studies
    R827353C004 Examining Conditions That Predispose Towards Acute Adverse Effects of Particulate Exposures
    R827353C005 Assessing Life-Shortening Associated with Exposure to Particulate Matter
    R827353C006 Investigating Chronic Effects of Exposure to Particulate Matter
    R827353C007 Determining the Effects of Particle Characteristics on Respiratory Health of Children
    R827353C008 Differentiating the Roles of Particle Size, Particle Composition, and Gaseous Co-Pollutants on Cardiac Ischemia
    R827353C009 Assessing Deposition of Ambient Particles in the Lung
    R827353C010 Relating Changes in Blood Viscosity, Other Clotting Parameters, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability to Particulate and Criteria Gas Exposures
    R827353C011 Studies of Oxidant Mechanisms
    R827353C012 Modeling Relationships Between Mobile Source Particle Emissions and Population Exposures
    R827353C013 Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) Study
    R827353C014 Identifying the Physical and Chemical Properties of Particulate Matter Responsible for the Observed Adverse Health Effects
    R827353C015 Research Coordination Core
    R827353C016 Analytical and Facilities Core
    R827353C017 Technology Development and Transfer Core