Final Report: Particle Dosimetry

EPA Grant Number: R827352C016
Subproject: this is subproject number 016 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827352
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Southern California Particle Center and Supersite
Center Director: Froines, John R.
Title: Particle Dosimetry
Investigators: Phalen, Robert , Oldham, Michael J.
Institution: University of California - Irvine
EPA Project Officer: Hunt, Sherri
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2005 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air


Topic C: Studies of the Effects of Varying Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Ambient Particulate Matter (PM) and Co-pollutants and Resulting Health Effects with Emphasis on the Role of Atmospheric Chemistry

The Dosimetry Core had two objectives; it was a service and research core. Dosimetry, or the quantification of deposited and/or uncleared particulate mass, is of importance in both the design and interpretation of the Southern California Particle Center and Supersite’s (SCPCS) epidemiology and toxicology studies, and for estimating population exposures using air-monitoring data. Two major aspects of dosimetry are: (1) determining the initial amounts of pollutant deposited on specific sites within the respiratory tract, and (2) determining the fates of deposited material with respect to retention, movement and bioavailability. The Dosimetry Core initiated original research to improve relevant dosimetry models and collaborated with other investigators to improve the design, interpretation and impact of their research.

Achieving these goals required maintaining several important assets, including operational computer codes; an appropriate library and literature data base; a qualified computational technician; and hardware for running codes, printing results and preparing publication-quality figures, tables and charts. The Dosimetry Core also initiated a workshop in order to support and guide Center research and to provide coordination with PM-related dosimetry activities outside of the Center.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

  1. The aerosol dosimetry software packages (LUDEP and MPPD) that predict inhaled particle deposition efficiencies are both useful for predicting human doses. Although each program gives slightly different values for similar inputs, the differences are within that expected range of values in human populations. Since MPPD1 (the latest version) is free (from the CIIT website), user-friendly and includes adults, children and rats, it is recommended for use in the SCPCS. LUDEP is also very acceptable.
  2. Computational Fluid Dynamic approaches to solving inhaled particle deposition problems have great promise in that individual differences and micro deposition patterns can be addressed. Although such approaches are not adequately validated for use in epidemiology research, they are useful for designing in vitro particle toxicology studies.
  3. Our morphometry and particle deposition calculations indicate that different mouse strains/varieties can receive different particle doses, even when exposed to the same air pollutant. Dosimetry information in one mouse strain does not necessarily apply to another strain.
  4. Ovalbumin sensitization of Balb/C mice did not significantly change airway dimensions, which simplifies interpretation of particle studies in which sensitized and non-sensitized animals are compared.
  5. Sophisticated dosimetry calculations support the use of relatively large particle doses in in vitro studies if particle deposition hot-spots in the lung are believed to relate to effects.
  6. Whole-body aerosol exposures of mice can provide for efficient inhalation of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Careful design and testing of exposure cages is required.
  7. The current state of modeling inhaled particle deposition in children is strong. Predictions using computer software models are consistent with clinical-setting measurements.
  8. Concentrated airborne particulate matter exposures appear to be capable of increasing inflammatory endpoints in the brains of Balb/C mice (Campbell, et al., 2005).


Campbell A, Oldham M, Becaria A, Bondy SC, Meacher D, Sioutas C, Misra C, Mendez LB, Kleinman M. Particulate matter in polluted air may increase biomarkers of inflammation in mouse brain. NeuroToxicology 2005;26(1):133-140.

Technical Report:

Full Final Technical Report (PDF, 6pp., 33.6KB, about PDF)

Journal Articles on this Report : 6 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 6 publications 6 publications in selected types All 6 journal articles
Other center views: All 138 publications 137 publications in selected types All 137 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Li N, Hao M, Phalen RF, Hinds WC, Nel AE. Particulate air pollutants and asthma: a paradigm for the role of oxidative stress in PM-induced adverse health effects. Clinical Immunology 2003;109(3):250-265. R827352 (2004)
R827352 (Final)
R827352C002 (Final)
R827352C006 (Final)
R827352C016 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Journal Article Oldham MJ, Phalen RF. Dosimetry implications of upper tracheobronchial airway anatomy in two mouse varieties. The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology 2002;268(1):59-65. R827352 (2004)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C016 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Journal Article Oldham MJ, Phalen RF, Robinson RJ, Kleinman MT. Performance of a portable whole-body mouse exposure system. Inhalation Toxicology 2004;16(9):657-662. R827352 (2004)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C005 (Final)
    R827352C016 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Journal Article Phalen RF, Oldham MJ. Methods for modeling particle deposition as a function of age. Respiratory Physiology 2001;128(1):119-130. R827352 (2004)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C016 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Science Direct Full Text
  • Other: Science Direct PDF
  • Journal Article Phalen RF, Oldham MJ, Nel AE. Tracheobronchial particle dose considerations for in vitro toxicology studies. Toxicological Sciences 2006;92(1):126-132. R827352 (Final)
    R827352C016 (Final)
    R832413 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Toxicological Sciences-Full Text HTML
  • Abstract: Toxicological Sciences-Abstract
  • Other: Toxicological Sciences-Full Text PDF
  • Journal Article Phalen R. The particulate air pollution controversy. Nonlinearity in Biology, Toxicology, and Medicine 2004;2(1):259-292. R827352 (2004)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C016 (Final)
  • Abstract: Ingenta Connect Abstract
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Air Pollutants, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, Atmospheric Sciences, particulates, ambient aerosol, toxicology, human health effects, ambient measurement methods, air pollution, PAH, particulate exposure, human exposure, toxicity, aerosol composition, allergens, particle concentrator, airborne urban contaminants, human health risk, aerosols, atmospheric chemistry, particle transport

    Relevant Websites:

    Full Final Technical Report (PDF, 6pp., 33.6KB, about PDF) Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827352    Southern California Particle Center and Supersite

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827352C001 The Chemical Toxicology of Particulate Matter
    R827352C002 Pro-inflammatory and the Pro-oxidative Effects of Diesel Exhaust Particulate in Vivo and in Vitro
    R827352C003 Measurement of the “Effective” Surface Area of Ultrafine and Accumulation Mode PM (Pilot Project)
    R827352C004 Effect of Exposure to Freeways with Heavy Diesel Traffic and Gasoline Traffic on Asthma Mouse Model
    R827352C005 Effects of Exposure to Fine and Ultrafine Concentrated Ambient Particles near a Heavily Trafficked Freeway in Geriatric Rats (Pilot Project)
    R827352C006 Relationship Between Ultrafine Particle Size Distribution and Distance From Highways
    R827352C007 Exposure to Vehicular Pollutants and Respiratory Health
    R827352C008 Traffic Density and Human Reproductive Health
    R827352C009 The Role of Quinones, Aldehydes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and other Atmospheric Transformation Products on Chronic Health Effects in Children
    R827352C010 Novel Method for Measurement of Acrolein in Aerosols
    R827352C011 Off-Line Sampling of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Respiratory Health Surveys
    R827352C012 Controlled Human Exposure Studies with Concentrated PM
    R827352C013 Particle Size Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the LAB
    R827352C014 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of PM in the LAB (Source Receptor Study)
    R827352C015 Exposure Assessment and Airshed Modeling Applications in Support of SCPC and CHS Projects
    R827352C016 Particle Dosimetry
    R827352C017 Conduct Research and Monitoring That Contributes to a Better Understanding of the Measurement, Sources, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, Physical State, Spatial and Temporal Variability, and Health Effects of Suspended PM in the Los Angeles Basin (LAB)